Adolescent Development

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Duringthe adolescence period, youths change physically at a high rate.Apart from the physical changes, they undergo social/emotional,interpersonal and cognitive changes. During their development, youthsare impacted by the outside factors like religion, school, media,culture, and environment. Several theories have emerged attempting todescribe the different aspects of adolescent development. Each theoryhas a distinctive focus on almost similar elements. Though it is truethat every teenager has a unique personality, likes, dislikes, andspecial interests, they all face various developmental issues duringearly, middle, and late adolescent years. As such, this paper willdiscuss the teenage developmental process based on nature/nurture,continuous/discontinuous, and early/late interplays.

Natureand Nurture Interplay

Naturecan be loosely described as the genetic makeup or inheritance,specifically, data encoded in the genes, which an individual inheritsfrom the parents. Inherited aspects are carried from the time ofconception throughout a lifetime. Genetically inheritable featuresinclude gender, some diseases, exceptional talents, and eye coloramong others. The concept refers to the biologically inheritedabilities and tendencies. Nurture, on the other hand, describes thevarious environmental factors surrounding an individual throughout alifetime. As such, both nurture and nature impact on adolescentdevelopment. Every feature of the development is shaped by therelations between genes and the environment. Evidently, withoutgenes, a child would not be born. Also, without an environment thatprovides nurture, a child would not be born. Adolescents’temperament and physical attractiveness are subjective to the geneticinheritance. Nevertheless, it is dependent on the parents’ attitudetowards the kids. For instance, affection to beautiful adolescentsthan less attractive ones shapes their cognitive development [ CITATION Nan12 l 1033 ].

Natureand nurture affect adolescent development. Though inheritable genesare passed during birth, they usually emerge in the adolescentperiod. During this growth process, environmental support liketoxin-free and safe surroundings, compassionate care, and food areessential. In fact, nature does not work alone. Adolescents’involvements in the environment impact on their being, that is, thehealth and curiosity of their minds. In other words, teenagers areinfluenced by the two aspects regarding their physique and mode ofthinking. Nurture impacts on the youngster’s development viaseveral channels: intellectually via formal instruction and informalexperiences socially through peer relations and adult role modelsand physically through stress, activity, and nutrition. Adolescentsthrive with sufficient environmental support. However, thesurroundings of nature are not at all times nurturing. For instance,kids who are raised in abusive families look beyond their backgroundfor loving, stable care [ CITATION Mic101 l 1033 ].

Continuousand Discontinuous Interplay

Constantdevelopment can be described as the growth process that entailsslowly adding similar skills. On the other hand, discontinuous growthrefers to the fresh ways of comprehending and reacting to emergingissues during the different periods. Supporters of the continuousdevelopment process imply that it is a gradual and cumulativeprocedure. For instance, an infant learns how to crawl, stand, andwalk gradually. All these aspects depict gradual comprehension of howto walk. Conversely, some theorists believe growth has differentphases. In the discontinuous process, people go through the variousstages of life that differ from each qualitatively. For instance,kids move from literal thinking to abstract thoughts. This notionsuggests that people go through a series of stages to achieve theultimate goal. At the teenage stage, kids show maturity or ratherdifferent aspects of behavior. During these years, children strive tobecome adults by becoming self-aware, independent, and competent,always involved with other people beyond their families. Thecognitive and biological developments transform their minds andbodies. Their social roles and relationship change when they enterschool and begin associating with peers. In early adolescence, thedesire for autonomy accompanies the social and physical changes [ CITATION Nat161 l 1033 ].

Evidently,it is hard to discredit both assertions of continuous anddiscontinuous development among adolescents. Some aspects seem to becontinuous while others appear discontinuous. For instance, teensacquire different mechanisms of handling anger problems. Throughtherapies, they gain knowledge gradually aiding their development.Conversely, at this age, youths stop thinking as kids and formabstract thoughts. It is normal to see adolescents devisingmechanisms of doing profitable businesses. The ideas that wererestricted during childhood are unleashed exemplifying development [ CITATION Rob11 l 1033 ].

Earlyand Late Experience Interplay

Adolescentdevelopment is dependent on early or late experience. For instance,in their quest to seek adulthood, anger may emanate fromfrustrations. Some of the contributing factors of violence includefamily interactions, bullying, home environment, personality, andsocial support. The adolescents typically move forward towardautonomy ethics and self-direction sexuality and future interestsand cognitive development. On the move towards autonomy they acquiremoodiness, peer group influences in clothing styles, and intereststhe struggle with the sense of identity, express feelings by actions,and tend to show less attention to their parents. These behaviors arealso dependent on the different experiences. For instance, foradolescents growing in violent families, they illustrate the sameoutside [ CITATION Spa14 l 1033 ].

Bullyingis another detrimental factor towards adolescent development. In2012, Josephson Institute of Ethics that is based in Los Angelesconducted an experiment involving 23,000 high school students aroundthe United States. In its survey, the institution wanted to determinethe views and attitudes on bullying and violence. The findings showedthat roughly 33% of the boys and 17% of the girls acknowledged it wasokay to threaten or hit someone who has angered them. 32 percent ofthe girls and 30% of the boys affirmed that physical violence wasquite common in their school. These statistics show how developmentamong adolescents can be influenced. As such, the early/lateexperiences affect the teenage development process [CITATION Nel142 l 1033 ].


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Nelson, E. G. (2014). Destructive Anger Among Adolescents: Management Strategies for Principals and Teachers. The Journal of Adventist Education, 18-23.


Siegler, R. (2011). Cognitive Development in Childhood. Retrieved from

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