ALTERNATIVE FUELS 5
Alternativefuels involve fuels with the absence of mineral oil products such asdiesel and petrol. Use of alternative fuels contributes to thereduction of emissions of greenhouse gasses or air pollutants. Theuse of limited resources is reduced by using alternative fuels. Designer fuels, electrical energy, and natural gasses are some of thealternative fuels produced from non-recyclable materials. Other fuelsare produced using natural sources of energy including plant partsand oil seeds. Currently, the US, federal, local and stategovernments are concerned in reducing emissions generated by vehiclesand constant sources in the areas that do not meet the required ozonestandards. There are various causes of using alternative fuelsincluding reduction of air pollution, protection from greenhouseeffects, saving money and resources, recycling the waste products,and can be produced domestically (Miller, 2014). Additionally, theuse of alternative fuels is more convenient than using conventionalfuels that are at risk of becoming depleted. The national event washeld because people in the transport sector had not embraced the useof alternative and cleaner energy sources, which reduces carbonemissions into the atmosphere.
InOctober 2014, a biennial event was conducted by National AlternativeFuels Training Consortium (NAFTC) referred to as the NationalAlternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Day Odyssey which the aim was topromote cleaner choices in the transport sector. The event was heldacross the United States which involved exhibiting the currentlyutilized alternative fuel vehicles. The (AFV) Day Odyssey used bothsingle and multiple fuel sources for automobiles in the way ofreducing air pollution. Use of solar, battery-electric, air-engine,biofuels, propane, hydrogen or natural gasses are examples of singlefuel sources. A solar vehicle is a power-driven by solar energyoutsourced from fixed solar panels on the car. It is also referred asan electric vehicle (Motavalli, 2014). The air-engine vehicleutilizes the use of compressed air as the source of energy. Thecompressed air is heated by consistent warm temperature whichincreases the efficiency of the car engine.
Battery-electricautomobiles are the most efficient vehicles with zero emissions. Thechemical batteries are the source of electric energy for thevehicles. Hydrogen fueled vehicles was quite challenging because theproduction of enough hydrogen depended on other resources such asfossil fuels, water or biomass. Propane is a readily available fossilfuel which produces less dangerous emissions and greenhouse gasses.The use of propane as an alternative fuel provides expediency,improves human health and environment and enhances energy security.Propane is more economical than gasoline (Sharma & Ghoshal,2015). The type of fuel is non-toxic, insoluble in water andnonpoisonous therefore producing low amounts of emissions anddangerous greenhouse gasses. Almost quarter percent of convertedvehicles and buses in U.S utilizes compressed natural gas. The gas isextracted from fossil fuels and has a cleaner combustion ascontrasted to conventional petroleum.
Hybridis an example of combined fuels where the hybrid motors utilizevarious propulsion systems to produce motive power. Gasoline-electrichybrid vehicles use petrol and electric batteries to run internalcombustions and electric motors reducing the emission of toxic gasses(Milano et al., 2016). The U.S. leads in worldwide sales of hybridvehicles of at least 3 million units per annum as recorded in Octoberlast year. Flexible-fuel automobiles are alternative fuel vehiclesthat utilize two different fuels during combustion stored in separatetanks. The fuels are environmentally friendly with reduced airpollution.
Inconclusion, the event that was carried out across the United Stateswas as a result of the continued use of the conventional fuels thatrelease greenhouse gases, and are harmful to the environment. Use ofsolar, battery-electric, air-engine, biofuels, propane, hydrogen ornatural gasses are among the alternative fuels recommended for use inthe transport sector. The need to reduce the emission of greenhousegasses and air pollution in the transport sector arose because thesector has a significant contribution to global warming. It is clearthat the main goal of the US, federal, local and state governments insuch an event was to promote the reduction of carbon emissionsgenerated by vehicles because the sector has not fully embraced theuse of alternative fuels.
Milano,J., Ong, H. C., Masjuki, H. H., Chong, W. T., Lam, M. K., Loh, P. K.,& Vellayan, V. (2016). Microalgae biofuels as an alternative tofossil fuel for power generation. Renewableand Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58,180-197.
Miller,B. (2014). Assessingopportunities for alternative fuel distribution programs.Washington, D.C: Transportation Research Board.
Motavalli,J. (2014). ForwardDrive: The Race to Build the Clean Car of the Future.London: Earthscan.
National Training Consortium, (2014). NationalAlternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Day Odyssey. Retrievedfromhttp://vtccc.w3.uvm.edu/event/odyssey-national-alternative-fuel-vehicle-day-on-church-street/on 13thOctober, 2016.
Sharma,S., & Ghoshal, S. K. (2015). Hydrogen the future transportationfuel: from production to applications. Renewableand Sustainable Energy Reviews, 43,1151-1158.