AMERICAN GOVERNMNET 14
Thispaper focuses on four major issues of the namelymedia bias, economic embargo of Cuba, expenditure on campaign, andsharing of music via the internet.
PartOne: Does the Media have Liberal Bias?
Mediabias can be regarded as the alleged bias of the journalist togetherwith the news producers within the domain of mass media concerningidentification of stories or events that are reported and theircoverage. Media bias in its context refers to the involvement ofpractices that are widespread, and they are against the standards ofjournalism. Therefore, many concerns have been raised with regards toliberal bias within the media industry, and it has been questionedwhether the press has a liberal bias? To complete the section, therewill be a critical analysis, pros, and corns of liberal media bias,literature review, and results.
Accordingto research that has been conducted shows that biases within the newsmedia are something that is real and it cannot be avoided at anycost. There are several effects that are generated by media bias suchlowering the quality of journalism, developing mistrust betweenaudience and readers and create tension among the citizens. When themedia becomes a center where biases are embraced, then it can have adiverse impact on equality. A clear example is the broadcastinghouses that are situated in the United States where biases havetransformed to be the order of the day. The new outlets are skewedespecially concerning an eye-catching news or event. Biases havedeveloped to a regional affair, for instance, media that are locatedin Washington tend to be biased towards solutions that are Washingtoncentered. That can also be experienced within the political press inthe United States where issues such as social and economic mattersare viewed with an inclined perception (Puglisi& Snyder, 2015).
Advantagesof Media Liberal Bias
Biasescan be applied to the media to prevent certain remarks that can causetension in the country, or the subject is inclined to a particulargroup of people. Such claims are true during politics since it is ablood sport when media gives information about a candidate that areperceived as negative they are likely to be branded or called names.The evidence can be that either the managers or staffs are seekingsupport from the other aspirants. Similarly, media bias can be anadvantage to the press especially when they have not established afact related to the issue to be broadcasted (Puglisi& Snyder, 2015).
Disadvantagesof Media Liberal Bias
Thereare numerous difficulties that are associated with media bias andthat have generated several debates and questions that attempt tosolve that issue. First, media bias has led to poor quality ofjournalism, since the content of information obtained from thesources is manipulated to meet the interest of a particular person orgroup of individuals as opposed to the general public. Secondly,media should act a channel where the public at large can getinformation and learn, but when they become bias trust is lost.Similarly, conveying fabricated information can generate tension in acountry and that can lead to fighting due to media bias (Puglisi& Snyder, 2015).
Conservativesare unable to recognize or imagine the bias that takes place in themedia houses, and the issue is very clear, as well as personnelundertaking. At the time when Bill Keller was working as a columnistfor New York Times, he associated with liberal stands, and that madehim become the executive editor. Considering the study that has beenperformed in the past, it shows that reporters and copyreaderspositioned themselves to the left of the American center. Evidently,some former journalists who have been biased in their profession arestill seen working even in the present administration (Puglisi& Snyder, 2015).
Mostof the media house and newspapers that help to inform the public havebeen associated with biases in their operation and that has causeddepression on the quality of journalism. Press plays a significantpart in the society, but they have failed at a certain point indelivering what is required of them. For example, they have aresponsibility to scrutinize any person who is in authority and thosewho want to join that field, but they have been in a position toprovide information relating to such persons. Additionally,manipulation of information or taking sides has made many peoplewithin the country to lose trust with the information that theybroadcast (Puglisi& Snyder, 2015).
Mediabias can be regarded as the alleged bias of the journalist togetherwith the news producers within the domain of mass media concerningidentification of stories or events that are reported and theircoverage. Similarly, there are several effects that are generated bymedia bias such lowering the quality of journalism, developingmistrust between audience and readers and create tension among thecitizens. Moreover, media bias has led to poor quality of journalism,since the content of information obtained from the sources ismanipulated to meet the interest of a particular person or group ofindividuals as opposed to the general public.
PartTwo: Should Economic Embargo of Cuba be Lifted?
Anembargo is a directive that is taken by a particular government in aspecified country limiting financial transactions or exchange ofgoods and services. There are certain factors that stimulate anembargo such as unfavorable political stability or economic climatethat exist between certain nations. The embargo on Cuba wasintroduced by the United States during the year 1960 such measureshave an adverse impact on both countries and the bottom issue iswhether embargo of Cuba should be lifted. The embargo in Cuba isknown as “el bloqueo” meaning blockade and the restrictionincluded travel ban for Cuban citizens with references to USjurisdiction.
Inthe course of Obama administration, a decision arrived at that wouldensure two of the Cuban restriction are withdrawn. The relaxation ofthat limit would permit easy travel to the nation of Cuba and alsoallows commercial activity between the two countries. That was just asection of the restriction while some section remained, nevertheless,that move world allows business to resume and promote commercialactivities (Miyagawa,2016).Most of the proponents claim that lifting of embargo should not havebeen arrived since Cuba has not met the criteria state by the UnitedStates such as promoting human rights. Similarly, concerns wereraised suggesting that elite from Cuba would benefit more from theopen trade. On the other hand, opponents’ claims that lifting ofCuba embargo should be passed because it was introduced as a cold warand it has not realized its goals since it was implemented.Additionally, both countries are suffering from the sanction, and ithas caused more harm to the United States economy and the people ofCuba(Miyagawa, 2016).
Advantagesof Economic Embargo in Cuba
Thereare benefits that have been realized in Cuba as a result of theembargo, for example, the force that was being used by the UnitedStates government on cube helped to enhance the state of humanrights. Similarly, the number of personal corporations in Cuba islimited and lifting the embargo would only benefit the administrationas compared to the people. Apart from the economic restrictionenacted by the United States administration they were able to provideassistance to the populaces of Cuba. Among the people in Cubasupports the embargo especially Cuban-American, implying that thereis a benefit they realize from the embargo (Miyagawa,2016).
Disadvantagesof Economic Embargo in Cuba
Similarly,there are problems linked with the embargo, for example, the citizenswho comprehend the condition best claims that the embargo is notfunctioning. The embargo is acting as an isolation mechanism thattends to cut links with the Cubans, and it cannot be used to promotedemocracy in Cuba but free trade can when implemented. When theembargo can be uplifted, Cuban government can be under pressure tostart handling issues that they had already accused United Stated ofcausing in their country. The restriction destroys the image ofUnited States as claimed by the international organization since someof the objectives that were to be achieved have not yet been realize(Miyagawa,2016).
Particularresearch argues that embargo should be lifted as soon as possiblebecause the harm that is being caused to Cuban would interfere withthe economy. For instance, Cuban has not joined the rest of the worldin technology, because they have been blocked from interaction withother nations and there is no flow of electronic to the island(Francis& Duncan, 2016).Alternatively, some of the studies suggested that the embargo shouldcontinue to operate since open travel is not practical to promotedemocracy in Cuba, for example, there are countries that havepermitted travel, but there are no significant results. Tentatively,it is suggested that the United States should work forward to ensurethat they end embargo in Cuba since it has lasted for about 50 yearsand the goals have not yet been achieved. The embargo was an outcomeof the cold battle and that explain the genesis of that economic,monetary and commercial restrictions, and the directive isunnecessary since Cuba is no longer a threat to the United States(Francis & Duncan, 2016).
Thereare numerous reasons why the embargo should be lifted because what iswas meant to achieve has not been realized after a period of 50years. The embargo was a measure that was taken by United Statesgovernment in Cuba, but studies show that the restriction isaffecting US economy and that is a substantial reason to uplift it.When the embargo was being introduced it targeted the government ofCuba but currently it is affecting the citizens more as compared tothe state. Therefore, the above reasons are concrete as far aslifting the restriction is concerned and it can be beneficial to theUnited States fraternity as to Cuba (Francis& Duncan, 2016).
Anembargo is a directive that is taken by a particular government in aspecified country limiting economic transactions or exchange of goodsand services. Similarly, some of the reason that supports the liftingof restriction claims that the United States is also suffering fromthe constraint.
PartThree: Should there be Limits on the Amount of Funds Used forCampaign?
Thecampaign is practices whereby aspirants who want to vie for differentseats meets with people from various regions and inform them abouttheir policies and what they are planning to do when they areelected. As a result, an enormous amount of money is spent to financethese campaign, and it is claimed that part of these funds isobtained through fraudulent means, and that triggered the formationof bodies that controlled money used during the campaign (Menzel,2012). Therefore, a body or an organization should be formed toensure that they formulate laws that limit the amount of funds usedfor the campaign.
First, according to the survey conducted on SuperPACs during thepresidential election in 2012 in New York it showed that it wasreminiscent of the wild west-like 19th century before campaignspending were monitored and regulated. It was a tradition that lotsof cash were being spent on behalf of the candidates, but it is quiteunfortunate that just a few individual knew and understood thesources of this money used during the campaign (Menzel, 2012). Dueto such malpractice, numerous bodies have been formed with theprimary objective of supervising and regulating presidential andcongressional candidates, an example of such organization is FederalElection Commission (FEC). Other duties that FEC is mandated tooversee during the election are the federal PACs together with otherpolitical committees whereby their contributors are identified, andthe information are posted on the internet for everyone to see(Menzel, 2012).
Advantagesof Limiting Amount of Funds for Campaign
Limitingfunds for the campaign is a strategic move as it ensures there are nowastages of resources in the economy and control manipulation thatcan result due to financial status. Some of the demerits of limitingcampaign funds include: there is no adjustment made for inflation,new candidates are not financed by the PACs, and during fundraising,minimal time is used as there is a limit amount to be raised (Menzel,2012).
Disadvantagesof Limiting Amount of Funds for Campaign
Likewise,there are demerits that are associated with the directive of limitingamount of resources that are used during the campaign. Some of thesecons include: the wealthy people in the society still continues tohave influence, due to dynamics of the campaign there are changesthat need to be made, and there are illegal donations that are stilltaking place in the country. The majority of wealthy people havedevised various mechanisms of evading existing rules and regulationsand as a result donating funds to aspirants whom they perceive ascapable (Menzel, 2012).
Someof the regulations that have been in practice in New York to curb orcontrol money used during campaigns are known as the reportableexpenditures. Reportable expenditures include independentexpenditures that constitute funds utilized by an individual orentity to either in support of or in opposition to a candidate who iscontesting a public office or ballot initiative and suchdisbursements are not controlled by the candidate or campaign(Menzel, 2012). On the other hand, expenditures that are planned bythe campaign are regarded as the contributions and in most casesthere is a limitation that is imposed on them concerning CampaignFinance law, the advantage of independent expenditure is that theyare unlimited. Both the candidate’s campaign and independentspending are required to submit a disclosure report with the CFB forover 20 years such regulation ensures transparency. There are twomajor types of independent expenditures known as the express advocacycommunication and the electioneering communication, for example,express advocacy refers to communications that contain phrases suchas “reject” or “re-elect” and they are considered to have noreasonable meaning rather they advocate for an election. On the otherhand, the electioneering communication is precise as it refers to aparticular candidate that is made within a time frame of 30 daysbefore the primary election (Menzel, 2012).
During campaigns, there are a lot of funds that are wasted and theirsources remains unknown to the public and developing organizationsuch as CFB play a critical role in establishing the sources of thosemonies and how they are spent. Similarly, monitoring and regulatingcampaign funds is very significant as it helps to establish ethicalnorms among the candidates who are vying for various elective postswithin the states. Additionally, there is need to improve existingregulations such as reportable expenditures to seal any possibleloophole that can be used by candidates to misuse funds allocated tothem for campaign purposes (Menzel, 2012).
Due to misuse of funds during campaign period there is an urgent needto formulate regulation that limits the amount that an individual canuse. Limiting funds for the campaign is the best directive, and itmust be enforced to ensure that money is not used to manipulatevoters.
PartFour: Does Sharing of Music Files through the Internet ViolatesCopyright Laws?
Technologyhas developed very fast in the current century, and internettechnology is not an exception, and the rate at which they grow israpid as compared to the laws that govern it. There are rules thathave been formulated and implemented that protect internet content,and they are either created through legislation or the courts, amongthem are the copyright laws. Many users of the web assume thatanything found online can be shared, copied or downloaded and sharingof music files through the Internet violates copyrights laws.
Exchangeof music files through internet violets copyrights laws, becauseproducers and markets are involved in that business with the aim ofmaking a profit. As a result, these products are safeguarded by thecopyrights laws that prevent people from copying, duplicating orreselling of the products without the permission of the owners.Before sharing a song or movie or any other media through theinternet, one must make a commitment fee and fail to do a crime thatcan lead to prosecution. Therefore, the laws are very clear, andcopyrighted media files are prohibited from sharing whether it isthrough electronic or non-electronic techniques especially withoutprior permission of the owner (Lee,2015).There are two societies in the United States that monitor sharing ofboth music and movies content online, these are the Motion PictureAssociation of America (MPAA) and the Recording Industry Associationof America (RIAA). The primary responsibility of these institutionsis to screen download that violates copyrights regulations. Much oftheir focus is directed towards colleges, and when they realize asong has been shared illegally, they contact the administration ofthe institution and arrest the culprit. When taken to court, one canbe subjected to monetary and legal consequences due to unlawfulsharing of the song online(Lee, 2015).
Advantagesof Distributing Music Files over the Internet
Mostof the gains realized by distributing music online are to the persondownloading them since they obtain the art of work minus compensatingfor them. Additionally, sharing of these products enhance educationamong the people through P2P networks as it permits sharing largerfiles and student can learn online without meeting physically.Similar, exchange of music online helps to make the artist of thesong popular as people download a sample to get a glimpse of what ison the new album that has just been produced (Lee,2015).
Disadvantagesof Sharing Music Files over the Internet
Thereare several drawbacks that are experienced when sharing music ordownloading, for instance, the artist goes at a loss since there isno revenue obtained. On the other hand, the person downloading themusic files are at risk, especially when using a P2P network, thesesystems come along with unwanted software that can crash thecomputer. In the long run, a person will realize that their computershave been affected by viruses, pop-ups among other computercomplications merely from downloading music. Similarly, when a personis taken to court for having interfered with the copyrights law, theyare likely to be prosecuted (Lee,2015).
Accordingto the research, it shows that students have fallen victims ofsharing music files and that violates the copyrights, and many havebeen prosecuted. Within the university there is a department ofinformation technology, they regularly receive infringement messagesfrom either MPAA or RIAA. The law demands that the IT specialist inthe respective university to conduct a search and locate the specificinternet port since they are connected with a person. That processhelps to identify the individual and legal procedures are taken onthe individual that can lead to jail or payment of fine (Zhang,2016).Sharing of music content is taken slightly by the majority of peoplebut the imposed, when one is caught by law, is a huge amount ofmoney, for instance, one can be fined a half a million dollars. Onecan be forced to pay such an amount especially under the MillenniumCopyright Act since the laws punish anyone who violates copyrightsregulations. Some of the penalties that can be subjected include:five years imprisonment, $150,000 as penalty or charges for a singlefile, and the copyright holder can determine whether legal fees anddamages be paid(Zhang, 2016).
Conferringto the regulation that has been specified by Millennium CopyrightAct, sharing of music files through the Internet violates thecopyrights rules. Before, downloading or sharing such documents aperson must obtain legal permission from the copyright holder toavoid any consequences. Additionally, bodies such as MPAA and RIAAcould not have been formed when sharing of music through the internetdoes not violate copyrights laws. That is a clear indication thatthese copyrights laws have been breached for a long period and thereis urgent to protect the work of the artist (Zhang,2016).
Thereare rules that have been formulated and implemented that protectinternet content, and they are either created through legislation orthe courts, among them are the copyright laws. Similarly, unlawfuldownloading of music content without the consent of the copyrightowner violates the act.
Puglisi,R., & Snyder, J. M. (2015). The balanced US press. Journalof the European Economic Association,13(2),240-264.
Miyagawa,M. (2016). Doeconomic sanctions work?.New York, U.S: Springer.
Francis,T. A., & Duncan, T. K. (2016). The Cuban Experiment: A 50+ YearEmbargo as a Failed Means of Promoting Economic and PoliticalDevelopment. SSRN11(4),169-177.
Menzel,D. C. (2012). Ethicsmanagement for public administrators: Leading and building organizations of integrity.Armonk,New York:ME Sharpe.
Lee,H. K. (2015). Between fan culture and copyright infringement: mangascanlation. Lee,H.–K.(2009) Between fan culture and copyright infringement: mangascanlation. Media, Culture & Society,36(6),1011-1022.
Zhang,S. (2016, March). Digital copyright: Beyond a legal outlook. InIntellectualProperty Forum: journal of the Intellectual and Industrial PropertySociety of Australia and New Zealand,104 (8), 32.