Approach to Care for Patients with Cancer Infection

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Approachto Care for Patients with Cancer Infection

Approachto Care for Patients with Cancer Infection

Withinthe field of medicine, approach to care is the practice involving themaintenance and or restoration of human health through prevention andtreatment of illness.Nonetheless, the patient’s concerns and feelings are alwaysdetermined and used to provide safer, proper and actual care. Inparticular, the paper focuses on cancer patients and provides terseexposition of cancer stages and diagnosis, its complications, theadverse results of its treatment as well as the methods utilized tolessen the physical and psychological issues that come with thedisease.

CancerDiagnosis and Staging

Cancerrequires thorough routine scrutinizing by a medical caregiver who hasto examine the cells or tissue samples of an individual under apowerful microscope. Similarly, a test can also be carried out on thecells’ proteins or DNA and or RNA which might help a doctor toarticulate whether there is cancer in particular cases(Elliss-Brookeset al., 2012).However, during the test of tissue and cells, more diseases arediagnosed in a lump, forcing the doctor to extract a portion of lumpand take it through imaging test (CT scan, Nuclear Scan, X-rays andor Ultrasound, etc.). These create pictures which enable the doctorto observe tumor present in the body since not all tumors/lumps arecancer.

Accordingto Elliss-Brookeset al.(2012),stagingof cancer is the description of how the cancer has advanced overtime, how unsafe it has spread to the neighboring tissues/cells,lymph nodes, and other delicate organs during the time of diagnosis.That helps the medical experts to administer the best treatmentoptions to the patients. There are numerous classifications of cancerstaging, and Elliss-Brookeset al.(2012)asserted that the most commonly used for most forms of cancer is theTNM system where each cancer type is given a letter i.e. T- tumor, N-Lymph nodes, M-Metastases. Each category is given a score indicatinghow far the cancer tumor has spread out i.e. T group providesinformation based on the aspects of the primary tumor, its size, howfar it has spread into the organ from where it was diagnosed and byhow far it has grown to a nearby tissue. Category N provides fulldetails of cancer according to how far it has multiplied in thenearby lymph nodes, while category M outlines to what extent cancerhas redistributed to the distant body parts. Also, staging of cancerthrough analysis provides more information on how complicated theinfection of an individual, and how far it has extended to othercells (Elliss-Brookeset al.,2012).

Complicationsof Cancer

Cancerdisease has many complications some of which are extremely painful,troublesome, and lifetime changing, leading to the death of a patientin many occasions (Vavkenet al., 2015). Someof the complications include pain, fatigue, inhalation constraints,nausea and vomiting, and weight loss. First, pain is triggered bycancer medication, e.g., surgery or by the disease itself, althoughnot all cancers cause discomfort. Pain is reduced through medicationsor other related approaches. Fatigue is commonly associated withchemotherapy or any other radiation treatments it is alwaystemporary and therefore easily managed. Inhalation problems aremajorly associated with disease handling, which can lead to astruggle in breathing by the patients (Vavkenet al., 2015).Nausea and vomiting is also related to some types of cancer andtreatment may lead to the problem. Hence, doctors are compelled todetermine if the treatment done will cause nausea and manage thatthrough the administering of appropriate medications. Finally, weightloss is a primary complication as cancer extracts food fromindividual cells, starving them from the required nutrients for bodydevelopment. This is not easily treated because it does not depend onthe nature of food a patient consumes or the frequency, and exploringthe use of artificial nutrition through tubes does not help to solvethe problem either (Majdaeenet al., 2015).

TheSide Effects of Cancer Treatment

Accordingto Majdaeen et al. (2015),there are diverse side effects caused by various types of cancertreatments. Some of these include skin and nail changes, decreasedsex energy, and hair loss. First, Skin and hair changes always followthe constant itching experienced by cancer patients leading to changeof their skin colour thus becoming red and dry. The situation iscaused by chronic renal diseases or liver disease, or due to thereaction caused by chemotherapy drugs. The use of mild soaps andfragrance-free lotions and creams can help in smoothening minor skinirritations. Nail colour may also change becoming dark, yellow orcrack during the administration of chemotherapy drugs such asmethotrexate and cyclophosphamide. It is reduced by patient coveringtheir hands with special frozen mittens which keeps their handsfreezing as they receive intravenous chemotherapy.

Decreasedsex energy is witnessed in males nursing pelvic cancers such as thoseof the bladder, colon, prostate gland and rectum. Additionally,females receiving therapy due to the cancers of the breast andgynecology typically showcase long-standing sexual dysfunction(Majdaeenet al., 2015).Similarly, cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment usingchemotherapy and radiation can have their nerves, blood vessels, andhormonal sexual changes hence pain, depression, and anxiety all ofwhich can affect a patient’s sexual life. Occasionally, malepatients have been encouraged to take Viagra to improve theirerectile dysfunction resulting from rectal surgery.

Besides,hair Loss is caused as a result of the killing of the rapidlydividing cells in cancer patients by chemotherapy medicines. Often,the roots of hair are destroyed leading to loss of hair both the headscalp, eyelashes, eyebrows, armpit hair and pubic hair within threeweeks of previous treatment. However, cooling of the scalp or takingminoxidil may reduce the hair damage, although to an insignificantextent, thus patients cope with hair damage differently(Majdaeenet al., 2015).Treating all these cancer complications and side effects will notonly improve the patient social life but also increase chances oftheir surviving in the short and long-term.

Methodsto Lessen Physical and Psychological Effects of Cancer

Staglet al. (2015) argued that mentalcare is very critical as an integral part of cancer care and it isattained by efficiently addressing the psychological well- being ofpatients to enable them to feel relaxed and in control and copebetter during treatment. All these will enable the cancer patient toovercome worry, unhappiness and consequently become positive andsatisfied regarding life. These are all realized by finding oneself anew outlook and concentrating on what one can modify not on what anindividual can’t transform. The patients should always feel free totalk about their feelings to families, friends, doctors and othercancers survivors so as to assume a positive mentally most desirablefor their health.


Thispaper has unsparingly tackled the approach to care of cancer patientswhich need to be done with the utmost keenness due to the highmortality rates of the disease and its side multiple effects topatients. Therefore, medicinal care must be given to cancer patientsstarting from diagnosis, staging of cancer, during medication besidesmethods to lessen psychological effects of cancer. All these willimprove/ reduce cancer patient’s side effects and encouragepatients by eliminating the feeling of neglect among them.


Elliss-Brookes,L., McPhail, S., Ives, A., Greenslade, M., Shelton, J., Hiom, S., &ampRichards, M. (2012). Routes to diagnosis for cancer–determining thepatient journey using multiple routine data sets.&nbspBritishJournal of Cancer,107(8),1220-1226.

Majdaeen,M., Kazemian, A., Babaei, M., Haddad, P., &amp Hashemi, F. A.(2015). Concomitant boost chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced headand neck cancer: Treatment tolerance and acute side effects.&nbspJournalof cancer research and therapeutics,&nbsp11(1),24.

Stagl,J. M., Bouchard, L. C., Lechner, S. C., Blomberg, B. B., Gudenkauf,L. M., Jutagir, D. R., … &amp Antoni, M. H. (2015). Long‐termpsychological benefits of cognitive‐behavioralstress management for women with breast cancer: 11‐yearfollow‐upof a randomized controlled trial.&nbspCancer,&nbsp121(11),1873-1881.

Vavken,J., Mameghani, A., Vavken, P., &amp Schaeren, S. (2015).Complications and cancer rates in spine fusion with recombinant humanbone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2).&nbspEuropeanSpine Journal,1-11.

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