Binge Drinking Among College Students

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BingeDrinking Among College Students

BingeDrinking Among College Students

Bingedrinking is when an individual consumes excessive amounts of alcoholover a short period and in most cases usually associated withblackouts (Mundt &amp Zakletskaia, 2012). According to variousstudies, binge drinking is mainly practiced by university and collegestudents who are young and full of the urge to partying. Furthermore,once these individuals are introduced to alcohol, it becomesdifficult to stop them from the habit, and a good number of them turnout to be alcoholics and may also indulge themselves in consumptionof other hard drugs. According to Scott-Sheldon et al. (2014), firstyears are the most consumers of alcohol due to the so-calledtransition process. For instance, Mundt &amp Zakletskaia (2012)argues that in 2001, around 599, 000 college scholars suffered fromalcohol-related wounds while in 2005 about 1, 825 learners died fromunintentional drinking associated injuries. This is where theytransit from being high schoolers to be college students. The primarycause for this behavior is peer pressure among youths, and this issuehas turned to be a complicated menace to solve over the years. Inthis review, various dangers that come as a result of binge drinkingamong college students will be discussed and broadened further.

Accordingto an article written by Dvorak, Lamis &amp Malone (2013),depression is one of the most common risks people who binge drinkface. Interviews carried out by various scholars’ show that a hugenumber of college students suffer from depression from a lot ofdrinking and these situations are delicate. It is advisable thatthese individuals to be taken for the appropriate therapy that wouldbe of benefit to them. If the individuals are not attended to at anearly stage, then they are exposed to other related risks that comeas a result of depression. One of these risks is suicide and is not anew thing in the modern society. Recent reports from AmericanFoundation for Suicide Prevention implemented in 2010 showed thatover one thousand and one hundred college students commit suicideevery year due to depression related problems (Dvorak, Lamis &ampMalone, 2013 Scott-Sheldon et al., 2014). Apart from this, bingedrinkers are exposed to Psychiatric mental disorders such asimpulsivity which involves one doing things in a rush withoutthinking carefully. This is bad, especially for college studentsbecause they may hurt themselves in the process and fail to have aclear consciousness afterward.

Anotherarticle written by Daphne Pedersen (2013) agrees with the fact thatcollege students mostly practice binge drinking. According to thisarticle, binge drinking in males is when one drinks five or morebottles of alcohol while in females is when one consumes four or morebottles of liquor. This is not advisable since the effects of alcoholare in most cases negative. One famous effect is that excessiveconsumption of alcohol lead to violence among the students and this,in turn, may result in serious injuries to individuals (Pedersen,2013). Fights may erupt at any moment because it is usually difficultfor drunks to control themselves and if there is no one around tointervene the fight, a lot of damage may be caused. Moreover, thefemale students are often exposed to sexual harassment from theirfellow students. In most circumstances, the female scholars areinfluenced to drink more than their body can handle. As a result,other students take advantage of the smashed learner and abuse hersexually. Pedersen (2013) adds that some girls have even contractedsexually transmitted illnesses such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and HIVamong others since their predators do not use any protection. Thewriter advocates for the limitation of binge drinking in college as away of protecting the female students from sexual predators.

Additionally,Sarah Ullman et al. (2013), are other researchers that have writtenan article about binge drinking and its effects on their work. Theymainly focus on the issue of sexual assault, which is a commonproblem faced in the modern society. According to Ullman et al.(2013), this problem is caused by excessive drinking in women suchthat they are sexually taken advantage by other people without themhaving a clue of what is happening. Apart from this, children arealso abused or rather molested sexually by those under the influenceof alcohol. This is a serious issue since according to study the rateat which women and children are being assaulted is elevating atalarming rates each year. Fortunately, sexual harassment is termedillegal. Therefore any individual found on the wrong faces the fullwrath of the law. Another problem associated with excessive drinkingis trauma issues, which in most cases the victims find themselves ina hotspot that they cannot handle. To add to this, Capece, M., &ampLanza-Kaduce, L. (2013) write that alcohol consumption in colleges iscorrelated with various outcomes such as alcohol overdose,alcohol-impaired drinking, physical injury, high-risk sexual actions,anti-social behavior and academic challenges among others. Theauthors apply the social learning theory to explain their views onthe aspect of binge drinking in colleges (Capece &amp Lanza-Kaduce,2013 Jones et al., 2001). These events leave an individual withparanoia, feelings of insecurity and loneliness, and to make mattersworse, some may cause unnecessary harm to themselves. This disordermay also lead one to live a life full of stress and so suchindividuals need to be well taken care of before any more harm fallson their way.

Besides,another article reviewing the matter is the Association betweenSports Participation, Alcohol use and Aggression and Violence writtenby Anders L. Sonderlunda (2014) among other writers. It claims thatmost college students engage in binge drinking and end up inactivities that can cause harm to their bodies or minds like fights,unprotected sex, drunk driving, public violence, sex crimes, anddomestic violence. This mainly happens during sporting activities atschool away from the prying eyes of tutors and parents. Most areinfluenced by masculine cultures and related social norms such asseeking identity among other alcohol users. After parties of sportingevents in colleges often have alcohol, especially when there is analcoholic company sponsoring the event (Sonderlunda et al., 2014).This is also dangerous for the team members since alcohol affectstheir performance in the sporting activity and may lead todisqualifications even to the best of the best. They are oftenrejected since they are seen as illegible and unfit for sport.

Accordingto Lorant et al. (2013), being drunk can also lead to fights amongteam members which paint a rather sad picture and negatively affectperformance due to injuries caused. Studies carried out acrossstudent populations have also shown that binge drinking is morerampant among college athletes, as compared to non-athletes, whichmeans that the risks are more among the sports participants. A studywas carried focusing on the impact of alcohol use, athleticparticipation, fraternity affiliation, and early sexual experienceson rampancy of violence. The aspects that were highlighted to berelated to these variables as predicting violence in athletes wereaggression and maybe a violent background, which is triggered by theclouded judgment from alcohol consumption. Furthermore, the authorsclaim that drinking, violence, risky behavior and injuries appear tobe linked according to all recent studies carried out (Lorant et al.,2013 Napper, LaBrie &amp Hummer, 2015). Certain types of sportshave specific norms. Some teams engage in alcohol consumption forteam bonding while others it is due to frustrations from losing orduring practice sessions. All these have adverse effects, since nomatter the reason for engaging in these risky behaviors, all get hurtthe same way.

Therole of masculine norms and peer pressure in adolescent boys’ andgirls’ alcohol use is an original article written by Derek Iwamotoand Andrew Smiler to explore the effects of this menace (2013). Thewriters explain that norms are generally associated with peerpressure and general conformity among young adolescents. Most malesin society, consume alcohol and most young students find themselvestrying to fit in and by so doing, engage in binge drinking. Masculinenorms do not specify on any sex group and are formed at an early ageso they can affect anyone depending on where you grew up and who yougrew up with. Masculine norms can cause risky behavior apart fromexcessive drinking, for example, the drive for multiple sexualpartners trying to cope with groups or peers themselves puttingpressure on an individual. Apart from the boys, adolescent girls alsoengage in risky behavior since they want to fit in with their peersor think what boys do is cool and want to try them out themselves.

Accordingto Derek Iwamoto and Andrew Smiler (2013), peer pressure also causesthem to engage in risks such as unprotected sex or sex with multiplepartners. Studies show that both adolescent boys and girls who gavein to peer pressure and masculine norms, for example, heterosexualdisplay and infidelity norms were more exposed to alcohol use and therisks involved as compared to those who aren’t susceptible to peerpressure and masculine norms. It was discovered that parents andother older adults were providing some pressure on young adolescents(general conformity) (Goode, Balzarini &amp Smith, 2014). If one hashigh general conformity beliefs, one is less likely to indulgethemselves in alcohol and other risky behavior while those withoutare found to always use alcohol or other drugs (Iwamoto &amp Smiler,2013). Masculine functions do not work the same across all genderssince girls, and boys adhere to norms differently. So thegender-neutral interventions for minimizing risk factor amongadolescents may be of limited use since the pattern of behavior inthese adolescents differed considerably across the genders. All thisshows a relation between masculinity, peer influence, and alcoholconsumption, which has dramatically increased over the last severaldecades.

LisaA. Paul et al. (2013), state that rape has become rampant not onlywith outsiders in the community but also among college students intheir rooms or outside colleges. Most rape victims do not disclose orreport the things done to them, especially to the authorities due tofear of stigmatization or violence from friends or family of theoffenders. Most of the victims prefer to stay silent or only disclosethe ordeal to close friends and relatives (Paul et al., 2013).Likewise, the victims of rape keep silence due to lack of reliableevidence to disclose in the court and most cases the offenders getaway with the despicable act. To add to this, the schooladministration in most cases tries to keep matters revolving rapewithin the institution to protect its name and avoid confrontationsfrom the public. Disclosure recipients are vital in determiningvictim recovery (Paul et al., 2013). Most college women and girlshave reported being disclosure recipients. Most of them, usuallyencourage the victims to report to the necessary authorities sincethey cannot do it themselves due to limitations such as lack of thecomprehensive report and full details. Although not all submitted itis promising that most of them, almost two-thirds, encourage thiscourse of action.

TheLisa A. Paul et al. (2013) article also shows that when disclosurerecipients gave them encouragement, accompanied them to during thereporting process, and helped them get over it, they also feltsupportive and needed which led to more of them encouraging victimsto take action. In most rape cases, offenders are not apprehended andprosecuted, and despite all the encouragement and support fromdisclosure recipients, they sometimes do not report such felonies forfear of stigmatization. Other factors that may influence a victim’schoice to report include the worry about being blamed, lack ofevidence to prosecute, and thinking that it is a private matter thatshould not be exposed. Most disclosure recipients reported a lot ofbinge drinking, drug and substance abuse, and may have looked foremotional help through therapy, which shows that rape affects thevictims and the disclosure recipients alike. Most of these activitieshappen after exposure in many college students. Emotional distress isassociated with rape disclosure as well as feelings of anger tosociety, especially for disclosure recipients who are women (Paul etal., 2013). According to Lisa, there are a lot of cases of rapedisclosure and these calls for refinement, effective disseminationand evaluation of psychoeducational interventions addressing how torespond to an abuse disclosure. This will help disclosure recipientsto deal with a disclosure. Training and awareness on positiveresponses should be encouraged in all colleges since it also happensto college students. The government has been of great help to thosesexually abused such that strict laws have been set to curb suchinhuman practices and anyone found on the wrong faces the real wrathof the law.

Anarticle written by Fairlie, Maggs and Lanza (2015), which was aninvestigation carried out daily in this study examine whether extremedrinking was more likely on the days the college students reportedpre-partying and drank games or to the days they did not. The studywas undertaken on a daily level for seven semesters. For eachdrinking day, participants indicated the number of drinks theyconsumed while pre-partying and also indicated if they had drinkinggames (Fairlie, Maggs &amp Lanza, 2015). Sex was also indicatedbearing the fact that the larger portion of college men than womendrink on more astronomical levels. For each drinking day, fourextreme drinking behaviors were computed. Daily estimated bloodalcohol concentration was calculated from the total number of drinks,hours drank, sex and weight. Given the potential for impaired balanceand unconsciousness a cutoff of 16%, which is twice the U.S. legallimit for driving was used to denote estimated blood alcoholconcentration greater than or equal to 16% (Fairlie, Maggs &ampLanza, 2015).

Fairlie,Maggs and Lanza (2015) also stated two indicators of subjectiveintoxication that had been computed. During the end of the survey,the participants were asked questions like “after how many drinkswould you begin stumbling or walking in an uncoordinated manner?”And “how many drinks would it take before you pass out?” Eachreported a day that the number of drinks consumed exceeded personallimits and this is not a good sign. Participants reported drinking at17% of the 7401 days they were under observation. A third of the 592participants did not report drinking on sampled days. The subsequentanalysis indicated that 399 who drank at least once (Fairlie, Maggs &ampLanza, 2015).

TheImpact of Elevated Post Traumatic Stress on the Efficacy of BriefAlcoholwas an article written by Christopher J. Monahan amongst otherauthors like James G. Murphy, who also studied heavy drinking collegestudents. According to Monahan et al. (2013), young adults whoattended college reported high levels of alcohol consumption than anyother age or demographic group and some studies indicate that thelevels of drinking among college students are alarmingly rising. Tocomplicate matters, recent studies exhibit that this behaviororiginated from the parents and guardians of these students who donot discipline them as they grow or act as role models. Seniorcitizens have been given the mandate to monitor their young ones andinspect any behavioral changes at an earlier stage before they becomeof age to join college. ThisHeavy episodic drinking is prevalentamong college students, with approximately 45% of the studentsengaging in at least one episode in the past two weeks (Monahan etal., 2013). This often leads to adverse health consequences orinjuries, academic and legal difficulties, blackouts and risky sexualbehavior.

Accordingto Christopher Monahan et al. (2013), brief alcohol interventionshave emerged as the intercession of choice among heavy-drinkingcollege students. Alcohol interventions include personalized feedbackabout an individual’s drinking pattern, how their drinking comparesto other college students drinking levels, blood alcohol levels, andother alcohol-related risks and consequences. Moreover, alcoholinterventions are frequently delivered by counselors duringmotivational interviewing style, and most recently computer-deliveredinterventions have also been deployed. Mental health matters likePost-traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) and depression are significantissues among college students, and in both cases, they are caused byincreased alcohol consumption. PTSD, in particular, has beenassociated with the use of more severe substances patterns comparedto other forms of psychopathology in college students. Individualswith co-occurring PTSD and alcohol misuse are more likely to drop outof college before graduating and report less income and higherunemployment when compared to people with a diagnosis of PTSD oralcohol abuse. Participants were 207 heavy drinking students from ametropolitan university in the Southern United States. Womencomprised the majority of the sample and the age ranged from 18 to 26(Monahan et al., 2013).

Intheir article analyzing drug and alcohol abuse among collegelearners, Leontini et al. (2015) claim that rape and assault are notuncommon among college women. A study from Bruce et al. (2016) showsthat more than half of college women experience sexual victimization,11.9% of women reported sexual coercion, 12.1% reported attemptedrape and 15.4% said completed rape. The prevalence rate of 10.1% forrape and 10.9% for attempted rape are the results of a recent studydone by Bruce et al. (2016).

Also,Napper, LaBrie &amp Hummer (2015), write that numerous studies havebeen done to understand the effects of sexual victimization of womenand how to reduce the number of women who experience that.Individuals who experience rape and other sexual victimization reporthigh levels of anxiety, social adjustment, posttraumatic stressdisorder, depression, suicidal ideation, fear, alcohol and substanceabuse, as well as lowered self-esteem, and sexual functioning. Suchissues make the victim feel all alone and may, in turn, hurtthemselves or those near them. Hence, variables commonly linked tosexual victimization such as alcohol use can be conceptualized as arisk factor for victimization and as a coping response. Drinking atthe time of the victimization is often discussed regarding risk forassault and also a general alcohol-related problem (Napper, LaBrie &ampHummer, 2015). Unfortunately, the cross-sectional nature of most ofthe research limits understanding of variables that can be both riskand factors of sexual victimization. Several prospective studies haveexamined specific risk factors for sexual victimization. Sexualvictimization has been predicted by various aspects of victimpsychological adjustment and behavior, including depression, anxiety,victim alcohol use, problems, and dependence, posttraumaticsymptomatology and number of previous sexual partners or risky sexualbehavior. If rape and sexual coercion involve distinct contextualfactors and if both are not addressed these issues will continuehappening. Sexual assault risk reduction programs for women oncollege campuses typically include a single psycho-educationalprocess.

Furthermore,an article on the subject by Terri L. Messman-Moore et al. (2008),states that alcohol has been consistently associated with sexualassaults, unwanted sexual contact, and the occurrences involvingdrinking are linked with complete rape among college students as wellas a higher degree of sexual aggression. Such ill behaviors in theseinstitutions lead to other worse problems such as early pregnanciesand contraction of various dangerous sexually transmitted diseases(Messman-Moore et al., 2008). According to Patrick, Maggs &ampLefkowitz (2014), 57% of college men reported engaging in sexuallyaggressive behavior. Almost half (47%) of male college scholars whohad registered sexually aggressive actions or assault were consumingalcohol before the offense. According to White &amp Hingson (2013),the male individuals who claimed to have used sexual coercionappeared to drink more alcohol with higher contents when compared totheir counterparts that did not report sexual aggression.

Accordingto Messman-Moore et al. (2008), the majority of the researchconducted on those who have sexually aggressive behaviors that areunwanted touching attempted rape and completed rape has concentratedon males as the offenders. These studies of coerced unwanted sexualcontact from male perpetrators have augmented from 24% in the pastyear. Several matters converge to expose college women to unwantedsexual contact (Messman-Moore et al., 2008). Palmer et al. (2010)found out that most female victims knew the male perpetrator and theincident mostly takes place in the context of a date in 85% ofcollage rape cases. 50% of the female victims have been confirmed tobe consuming alcohol at that time and risk of sexual victimizationincreases with heavy drinking. Female college students who haveexperienced unwanted sexual contact drink more alcohol and reportmore alcohol-related negative consequences due to their use. Thegirls who have been victims of rape also record augmentedalcohol-related outcome expectancies for sexual enhancement (Palmeret al., 2010 Winograd &amp Sher, 2015). Sexual contacts or ratheran advancement should never be tolerated, and in the modern society,strict policies have been set aside to deal with the perpetrators.Therefore, any student exposed to such ill treatment is advised notto keep silent but to bring the offenders to justice. Similarly,female college students who have experienced unwanted sexual contactconsume more alcohol and report more alcohol-related adverse effectsin their college life.

Insummary, binge drinking is among the prevalent activities thatcollege students in the modern society get into. It is vital forvarious administrations to recommend and enact laws that will helpcontrol this menace. Also, these college students, especially thefreshmen should be educated further on the effects of binge drinking.In addition to this, more rehabilitation programs should be put inplace to help those students that are willing to change for thebetter. These therapies are good for the victims because they mendtheir broken souls and make them more active in class. This, in turn,will naturally improve their grades in class and focus on achievingtheir dreams.


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