RESEARCH PAPER: CHINA AND DENMARK RELATIONS 1
China’s and Denmark’s relations
China and Denmark founded an ambassadorial Association on 11th May1950. Of all the countries in the West, Denmark was the first stateto sign a diplomatic treaty with China. Later on 15th February 1956,the two republics advanced their political relationship fromexchanging ministers to exchanging ambassadors. China has one of itsembassy’s in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark whereas Denmark hasits embassy in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hon Kong, and Chongqing.The economic and industrial development of China has beenoverwhelming as from the beginning of the 1980s. In turn, China hasbeen rated the largest carbon emitter globally. The country,therefore, dedicated to Conference of Parties in Paris to decreasethe energy concentrations for every capita with sixty to sixty-fivepct. by the year 2030 and also to top carbon productions.
The Danish government and the Chinese government signed a consensualtransnational collaboration where the midpoint is the China NationalRenewable Center. In the cooperation, the Chinese and Danishspecialists work hand in hand to scrutinize the likelihoods ofextending renewable energy in the Chinese energy scheme using thenumerous years of Danish experience in the line of work. The paper ismeant to compare and contrast the policies for environmentalconservation concentrating on ozone emissions and air pollutionbetween China and Denmark.
China is a developing country whereas Denmark is a developed country.
Economic growth in China and Denmark
In 1976, Mao Zedong’s leadership collapsed after his death. DengXiaoping, therefore, took direction. The new governance stressed oneconomic growth and relinquished many political movements. There wasan adoption of financial reorganization policies with its primarymotive of extending rural proceeds and incentives, reduction ofcentral strategies, encouraging trials in trade freedoms, andattraction of foreigners to directly invest in China. The reformpolicies led to multiple enhancements in the living standards oflaborers living in the urban areas because of the investment invillage industries. The general assembly also enhanced the regularityof the pace of authorized reforms, climaxing in the openings of manylegal encryptions be the sovereign people’s congress. Since then,when economic reforms began, the gross domestic product in China hasgrown tremendously. It is estimated to be growing at ten percentyearly. The country has developed as the main international economicpower, the largest economic power globally regarding trading,manufacturing, importing, exporting and proprietor oftranscontinental reserves (Brødsgaard and Kirkebæk, 2010).
In the 1970s, Denmark was experiencing a series of prosperity.Employment was at a high rate. Agriculture was the primary source ofmerchandise making the Danish industry to develop swiftly. This,however, did not last for long, the economy in Denmark begandeteriorating a few years later. Denmark had just joined the CommonMarket. The government decided to introduce austerity actions toreduce the inflation. The measures worked. In the 21st century, theeconomy picked up, and the redundancy levels went low. Theinvolvement of the government of private business owners in exportand import sectors has gone down over the years. The businesscommunity largely depends on the discounts from the National Bank.The cartels and monopolies are bendable. The country has alsoinvested in communication sectors, domestic, airports and airtraffic. The local government and municipalities own and run thepower industries. Availability of inducements assists upcomingcompanies. The government provides infrastructure and cheap land aswell as the industrial parks. By the year 1978, the Danish governmenthad reached the UN objective which stated that it could offer themwith developmental assistance (Chang, 2011).
Kyoto and Montreal Protocols
The Kyoto Protocol aims at reducing harmful emissions from thedeveloped republics. The decorum does not provide China a variety ofindemnities related to greenhouse emissions. It fails to providedeveloping big emitting countries like China with importantobjectives to deal with their emissions. Such policies made Chinaresist in joining the protocol because they felt that they cannot behelped as they wish. As mentioned earlier, China was ranked to be theleading country in emitting harmful gasses. It is because of thelarge population of the country, therefore, many producingindustries. The country also has a good running economy thus makingthe problem inevitable (Brødsgaard& Kirkebæk, 2010).
The Conference of Parties in Copenhagen ensured of steps made towardssuccessful multidimensional actions. It is not enough, though theorganization cannot be able to promote the desired actions forbringing out positive change. Another meeting held in Durban led to aslight progress. Coalitions signed a treaty on extending the Kyotoprotocol and coagulating and a functioning system for the GreenClimate Fund (Chang, 2011). They agreed, however, that the newagreement would entail decreased targets for all countries instead ofbeing focusing on the developed countries alone. The Danish andChinese governments, therefore, decided to work together to integraterenewable energy. China entered the Kyoto protocol in Japan on Feb16th, 2005.The Montreal protocol was aimed at phasing out harmfulsubstances released into the air which ended up depleting the ozonelayer. China though has been expanding its use of merchandises thatcontain CFCs. Examples of these products are air conditioners andrefrigerators. They claim that they have they can as well use stuffthat developed countries use therefore not being responsible forozone depletion. They were then allowed a ten-year delay inimplementing the systems.
The main aim of Denmark signing the Kyoto protocol was to reduce theemission of the greenhouse gasses. The Kyoto protocol led to flexiblemarkets in the country. Denmark joined the Kyoto protocol on February16th, 2005. The flexible markets mechanisms are to assist in theparticipation of the state’s meetings and show their commitment ina little financial budget as an enhancement to local reductions. TheMontreal Protocol main aim is to phase out all the harmful gassesreleased into the atmosphere. In 1987, the Montreal protocol inDenmark was confirmed. They came to an agreement with doing away withtoxic gasses released into the air. The Danish government has reducedthe release of ozone depleting substances at a rate of 0.04%annually. The most harmful substances released are halons and CFCs inthe country. Currently, the state is using two purifying facilitiesin implementing these rules which work by destroying the ozonedepleting substances. It has led to a tremendous reduction of theusage of ozone depleting substances (Doern, 2014).
China’s and Denmark’s growing Environmental Concern
As the economic boom of China accelerates, so does theenvironmental problems in the state. Successional front runners inthe country who established and urbanized China misused the naturalresources which gave rise to natural catastrophes and starvations.The today’s situation in the country is as a consequence of poorchoices, institutions, attitudes, and approaches practiced over theyears. In 1972 however, China decided to come up with environmentsorganizations during the United Nations conference. In the late1970s, the country experienced economic reforms which preceded growthof productions in the countryside worsening the existing problem. Itdrastically reduced the utilization of fossil fuels. The country’smodernization has improved the living standards of its citizenstaking them out of abject poverty to a bourgeois state.
Being the biggest greenhouse gas emitter, China is responsible fortwenty-four percent global pollution in 2014. There is a lot ofenergy consumption in the area. In 2015, the country alone used closeto seventeen percent more coal than it has used in the past years.Reports showed that at some point in 2013, there was a severecontinuous period of smog in the air that made inhabitants feel likean apocalypse happening. This intensity of the harmful particles wassaid to be forty times the degree rated to be anodyne by the WordHealth Organization. The continued environmental destructions presenta critical threat to the economic growth of the country. It costsChina three to ten percent of the country’s gross income (Doern,2014).
In Denmark on the other hand, more than 60 percent of the entirecountry is occupied by Agriculture. It means that there is a high useof pesticides and fertilizers, which are also a source of pollution.The levels of nitrogen in the soil decrease progressively as thedegree of pesticide utilization continue. As is that is not enough,the pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture are washed into therivers and waterways. For 18years, the sector of carbon-basedagronomy has gone up as compared to the fourfold. In urban areas, themain problem is the air pollution from industries as well astransportation. They emit large quantities of air pollutants fromwood burning stoves. The Danish government is also rated among thehighest users of resources and biggest producers of wastes in theentire region of Europe.
World Health Organization
China joined the World health organization on April 7th1948. The government of China is among the two initiating countriesof World health Organization. During the assembly of WHO in 1972, thecountry got its rightful seat in the World health organization. Fromthat point onwards, China has sent designations to all the members ofWorld health organization. WHO granted China with many methodologicalbits of help amounting to millions of dollars. A report conducted byWorld health organization showed that the burning of fossils in theregion in a period of 50 years had emitted tremendous amounts ofcarbon dioxide including other toxic gasses to trap an extra amountof heat in the atmosphere below thus affecting the universal climate.The earth has been warming up in the past three decades. There hasbeen an increase in the levels of sea, alteration in theprecipitation pattern and glaciers meltdown. The extreme weatherevents are becoming intense and frequent (Gonzalez, 2005).
According to World health organization, the global warming comeswith adverse health effects. The extreme heat causes cardiovascularand respiratory ailments among the elderly. There is also an increasein pollen and other aeroallergen amounts in the hot climate. They inturn trigger asthma. The rising sea levels have been causing naturalcalamities as well as the change in the rainfalls patterns. There hasbeen an increase in flood cases which contaminate the fresh watersources causing an increase in waterborne diseases. Measuring thehealth impacts, the world health organization assessment takes intoaccount a subsection of the likely health predicaments, neglectingthe fact that the climate change is predicted to cause more and moredeaths yearly. It will, in turn, affect the economic growth of thecountry.
The world health organization responded by coming up with policiesand individual choices to lower the toxic gasses emissions and alsoto produce general health benefits. One of the strategies entailedadvocating for purer energy methods and fostering the use of safepublic means of transportation instead of using the private vehicles(Gonzalez, 2005). It could in a way reduce the emissions of carbon aswell as reducing the problems of household air contamination andambient air pollution. The main purpose of WHO is ensuring theChinese people gets a good health. China took a long time beforejoining the world health organization because of the politicalmanagement in the country before the 1940s. The political leaders hadrules and neglected the wellbeing of the citizens. It was after Mao’sleadership that the country was able to practice safe healthpractices.
Denmark joined the World health organization in the 1960s. Laterafter the World War II and after the Chinese Government. The DanishRepublic offered the world health organization with sixty milliondollars in completely supple subsidy. The money is to be used byparticularly the work it is stipulated to do. More than seventypercent of the funds provided to world health organization issubstantially reserved. It leads to significant projects being leftout. The director general practices flexible funding. He assigns themoney where there is the urgency to ensure that critical programs arenot left out when the funds are reserved. The history of world healthorganization and Denmark dates back for so many years. Their main aimis ensuring that every individual in the country has the chance ofattaining their full health potential regardless of who they are orwhere they are. The goal has been reflected in the unbiased provisionof health care in the state`s current policy of cooperation with theWorld health organization.
In 1987, world health organization issued an edition entitled AirQuality Guidelines for Europe. The aim of the guiding principles isto offer a foundation for the protection of the people’s healthfrom the unfavorable effects of air impurities and to minimize or doaway with exposure to the chemicals known to be toxic to human health(Gonzalez, 2005). They also offer a background of details anddirection to national and native laws in coming up with risk andmanagement policies. Even though the procedures are proved to provideprotection for the health of humanity, there are not green lights forcontaminations. The goal and effort are to keep the greenhouse gassesas little as possible. The guidelines also do not offer a distinctionbetween the outdoor and indoor fumes. The location of contactestablishes the intensity of the air and the degree of the variouspollutants though it does not straightforwardly affect theexposure-response association.
Air pollution in China and Denmark
The air in China is too much contaminated with pollutants that thegovernments waged war on it. The Chinese government however was indenial of the case. They did not want to admit that their country wasfacing a pollution crisis. The pollution is caused by minuteparticles coming of the many cars, steel industries and coal-firedpower stations creating thick putty colored smog. Recently, Beijingbroadcasted a pollution alert ordering the closure of factories,Infrastructure sites as well as schools. Half of all the private carson the roads were stopped. The action, however, did not last forlong the country has millions of people looking on theindustrialization which takes them out of their poverty levels. Aprofessor of the global environmental health at one of theiruniversities lamented on the pollution. He says one can feel the eyesitching and even coughing. The particles in the air are the size ofhalf a virus. They cannot be compared to human hair, though (Jiang,2010). The enormous particulates are stored in the lungs. Anotherstudy in the country showed that the tiniest of the particles areabsorbed into the bloodstream then taken to the brain. There was acleanup of the Beijing air following the Olympic Games some yearsback, but the conditions went back to the former state after thegames. The country was in a denial state regarding the status oftheir air until the studies in 2013 which showed that the women inthe country gave birth to little weight babies as compared tocountries with clean air. Since then the government put measures todeal with the crisis, but they are still facing a challenge.
In Denmark the measured harmful particulates are nitrogen oxidesand dioxide, benzene, sulfur dioxide, lead and other heavy metals.The environmental protection agency in the state has signed a treatywith a National Center for Environment and Energy, which isaccountable for the capacities. These measurements give theenvironmental protection agency permission to monitor the quality ofthe air. There are boundaries to which the air pollution can extendso as to ensure the health of the populaces within the country isprotected. The state meets the limits criteria for a variety ofsubstances. However, major towns like Copenhagen have more than onedetermining stations for measuring the level of the harmfulsubstances (Doern 2014).
Apart from pollution coming from the agriculture sector, there areindustries, power plants as well as the vehicles on the roadsemitting toxic gasses. The many sources of infections lead to someproblems in the country. The harmful particulates in the air areswept away by the wind to the nearby countries and boundaries. Forthe sake of people’s health, the Danish governments together withthe neighboring republics have come up with a policy of monitoringthe quality of air and combined enhancement of air quality for allthe inhabitants. The country’s prerequisite for the air quality isstandards which are set by the European Union. Since there are newregulations made. Denmark’s law will be integrated appropriately.The current Danish legislation was adopted in 2010.
A Clean future for China and Denmark
The major goal in Denmark has been establishing a green andecological world. The country utilizes the renewable energy which isabout 20%. Their goal though is to reach 100% in 2050. They haveinvested heavily on wind generators. Denmark has been ranked theworld’s leading new developing technology. Apart from the windturbines, they also have a culture which involves cycling. Most ofthe residents commute using bicycles. Their roads are alsoconstructed by leaving the bike paths. There is also a suggestionwhich was passed in 2013 whose aim is to cut down on the pesticideload. Also, to address the air quality concern, a law regarding theemissions of nitrogen was passed (Letcher 2013). The government alsodecided to agree on the modernization of public transport whichentailed a new railway system and also cleaner buses. There werecampaigns in educating the people on climate change. Its primarystrategy was to minimize the toxic gasses into the atmosphere byroughly forty percent by the year 2020. Adding to the town’s highindustry. The Danish government has also implemented a variety ofmethods that go hand in hand with the renewable energy sources. Thereis no use of imported fossil fuels rather they use the renewableenergy which they term as sufficient. More so, they use the smartgrid technology. With all these techniques, the possibility ofDenmark attaining a clean future is possible.
China has not been left behind in creating a clean future for itspeople. The laws on air pollution and environments pollutions arestrict. It is to ensure that the transition from the current state ofbeing the world’s leading country in pollution to cleaner energy ishastened. The environmental officials have made sure that they havethe required tools to effect the actions. In the conference held inParis regarding the climate talks, China dedicated to reducingdrastically it carbon dioxide emissions by the year 2030 (Letcher2013). They also committed to escalating the non-fossil energy totwenty percent by 2030. For all this to happen, the country will berequired to invest in a lot of wind turbines, solar energy and alsonon-fossil energy. This would be the same as the current UnitedStates generating capacity.
In the past five years, China set up forty percent of renewableenergy in the world. In turn, it has led to improvement where Chinahas been able to practice clean energy that goes beyond the Europe’sand the United States investments. In the past twenty years, Chinahas been ranked as the most responsible in the energy conservationsector. Currently, the country’s use of coal has gone down by morethan five percent as the economy prolongs.
Similarities between China and Denmark
The Chinese leaders asked for help from abroad even after waging waragainst pollution. The industry in the northern part of Chinamanufacturing iron and steel was the battleground for the campaignsto get rid of the greenhouse gasses. The Chinese government on theirown could not fight this, therefore, they decided to seek help fromthe Danish government. China`s population is estimated to be twohundred times the Denmark’s. The Danish government policies hadtaken effect from the 1990 strategy of reducing the carbon emissionsby close to forty percent. The leaders from Denmark were proud tohelp and the relationship has lasted up to date. An agreement betweenChinese and Dan Foss was signed, which is a native company that dealswith engineering to assist Anshan to stop the destructive habits. Themain reason why Dan Foss was chosen over the other companies was thatof the expertise in the sector where the Danes happen to be worldleaders (Letcher 2013).
Both China and Denmark are facing a challenge when it comes topollution. The only difference comes when one looks at the intensityand the amount of damage the pollution has caused. Looking at Denmarkfor example, the greenhouse gasses are produced by the widelypracticed agriculture in the area, and there is more use offertilizers and pesticides which in the end are released to theatmosphere, therefore, causing contamination. There are alsoindustries which produce heavy metals as well as cars emitting carboninto the air. China, on the other hand, is the leading country in airpollution after overtaking the United States. As mentioned earlierthe air is so much polluted that one can choke and get teary. Thestate is working on the policies on how to curb this major challengebecause it is affecting the country economically as well as healthwise. A healthy nation is a wealthy country. It is, therefore,evident that the two countries are facing a pollution crisis, butthey have strategies which they are employing in helping them wagewar against contamination (Doern 2014).
The two states formed a treaty as early as in 1950. The relations hasbeen growing over the years as well as strengthening as they havebeen involved in business and other conventions. In a recent study,Denmark was ranked to be the biggest investor in China per capita. They have even gone ahead of intermarrying, therefore, exchangingcultures.
The relations between China and Denmark have been running oversixty-five years. The two countries started off as being the tradepartners and have led to more and more associations. The currenttreaty signed to curb the pollution crisis especially in China hastaken effect. With the help of the Danish government as other states,China will acquire the status of a clean future. It is clear thatissues faced by a developed country compared to a developing countryare the same. The difference comes with how the two are skilled toface and tackle the crisis.
Environmental Agreements involving China and Denmark
These were agreements that were agreed upon globally and each nationwas responsible for protecting them. The agreements majorly entailedclimate protection, climate change, ozone layer depletion prevention,marine environmental protection, waste management and the presence ofdata and individual participation. Some of the general agreementsincluded: The 1979 Geneva Convention that aimed at the long rangeTrans boundary air pollution, the 1988 Sofia Protocol regarding theregulation of emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, and the 1998 AarusProtocol relating to the heavy metals just to mention but a few.
China and Denmark declarations
Particular declarations were designed with the aim of environmentalcontrol and management. On 6th June 1997, the governmentof China reported to the UN secretary general that the Republic ofChina was to start the practice of sovereignty. This was with respectto the declarations of the Republic of China. As Such, Hong Kong wasto become a special administrative center of the People’s Republicand was to enjoy a high level of self-sufficiency, except in defenseand foreign affairs. As for Denmark, a letter dated 18thDecember 1991 showed reservation on the use of Montreal Protocol tothe known Feroe Islands. A similar application to the protocol toGreenland was reserved on the same period.
Brødsgaard, K. E., & Kirkebæk, M. (2010). China and Denmark:Relations since 1674. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies,NIAS.
Chang, M. I. (2011). Pollution in China. New York: Nova SciencePublishers
Doern, G. B. (2014). Innovation, Science, Environment 07/08: CanadianPolicies and Performance, 2007-2008. Montréal: McGill-Queen`sUniversity Press.
Gonzalez, G. A. (2005). The politics of air pollution: Urbangrowth, ecological modernization, and symbolic inclusion. Albany:State University of New York Press
Letcher, T. (2013). Future Energy: Improved, Sustainable and CleanOptions for our Planet.
Burlington: Elsevier Science
Jiang, Z. (2010). Research on energy issues in China.Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.