Critical Thinking Assignment

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CRITICAL THINKING ASSIGNMENT 1

CriticalThinking Assignment

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Antibioticsare the antimicrobial type of drugs that are helpful in treating andpreventing bacterial diseases or infections. They destroy and inhibitthe development of bacteria, and sometimes they prevent protozoaninfections. Antibiotics function in a manner that, when a responsiblemicroorganism is already known an appropriate and definitive therapyis started. This basically entails the use of narrow-spectrumantibiotic and the choice of antibiotic available is based on itscost and efficiency.

Onthe other hand, obtaining appropriate and accurate diagnosis of adisease is significant in prescribing an antimicrobial therapy andhaving an understanding of the drug features that are unusual toantimicrobial agents that may have an impact on its activity is alsoimportant in this case. Similarly, recognizing the possible effectson antimicrobial agents of the host and knowing the importance ofantimicrobial factors is essential when developing an antibiotic.

Spectrumof coverage of the antibiotic

Antibioticsare categorized by the range of a bacterial species that isvulnerable to these agents. The spectra coverage may vary with theability of resistance genes present. Therefore there is twoclassifications of antimicrobial which include the wide/broadspectrum, narrow spectrum or intermediate spectrum (McShan et al,2015).

Broad-spectrumantibiotics

Theseare those that act on a wide or broad range of infections or diseasecausing bacteria. In this case, it may perform on both Gram-positiveand Gram-negative bacterial. This may include phenicols.

Theyare appropriately used in clinical circumstances such as when thedrug repellant bacterial that may not react to other morenarrow-spectrum antibiotics and also in cases where more than onetype of bacterial is causing illness, therefore, their is a reason ofusing a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment.

Thisparticular type of antibiotic may result in negative effects suchthat it can alter the body’s basic microbial content. In this case,the antibiotic attacks indiscriminately the pathological and naturalexisting, beneficial and harmless bacterial found in the organism’sintestines, lungs and bladder (Bettiol et al, 2015). Notably, whenthis happens the microorganisms find a chance to grow and developrapidly resulting into a more severe infection

Narrow-spectrumantibiotics

Thesehave a limited or smaller activity and are basically and only usefulagainst a specific species of microorganism. They are found to behelpful in either in Gram-positive or Gram-negative. On the otherhand, they are also used when a particular infection’s causativeagents is known and are found to cause less resistance of thebacteria as it acted only on a particular and specified bacterial.Secondly, they will not destroy a lot of microorganisms foundnaturally on the body of an organism hence regarded to have lessability to cause superinfection.

Theseantibiotics are also found to be less effective as they may not killor destroy the pathogens causing diseases in cases where choice isnot made keenly. For instance, these antibiotics have a variety ofpresentations, and indications and these are Clindamycin is usefulin treating infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria suchas respiratory track diseases and skin and may also treat infectionssuch as bone and joint diseases specifically those resulting fromStaphylococcus aureus bacteria.

Resistancepatterns

Antibioticresistance is termed as the ability of a microorganism to resist theaction or effects of the medication that was used to treat them. Thenresistance comes in three patterns that include natural, geneticmutation and by the acquisition of resistance from one species toanother.

Naturalresistance

Is the most common types of resistance and the genes associated withthis are ancient and this resistance occurs due to environmentalfactors such as resistome and these genes can be transferred frompathogenic to non-pathogenic microbes resulting into medicallyimportant antibiotic bacterial. This requires a larger dose oralternative medication to curb this.

Geneticmutation

Resistancecan occur randomly due to mutations due to misuse or increasingly useof antibiotics and spontaneous shift of genetic material of thebacterial. This enable the bacteria to release chemical such asenzymes that inactivate antibiotics used hence reducing its abilityto destroy them. Similarly, some block the entry sites that enablethe antibiotic to enter the cell (Whale et al, 2015).

Structureof bacteria

Theinteraction of antimicrobial peptides with the anionic membranephospholipid is the fundamental factor in killing the bacteria. Theirmechanism is mostly related to targeting the microbial cytoplasmicmembrane plus the lipid matrix which becomes permeable. For instance,the cell wall of Gram-positive and the outer membrane of theGram-negative bacteria is composed of anionic lipid molecules thatcompete with the plasma membrane during their interaction.

Diseaseprocesses

Theantibiotics fight diseases in the body by attacking the infectionprocess the structure of the bacteria is destroyed, and theirability to replicate is hindered. Some directly attack the bacterialcell wall killing it hence making it unable to infect the body whileother antimicrobials block the bacteria’s replication where theyprevent nutrients from reaching the bacteria thereby reducing theirnumber.

Thosethat are classified as broad-spectrum fights many types of bacteriain the body as others are only specific to certain diseases. Notably,antibiotics are developed depending on how diseases are characterizedand progress, this ranges from tissue injury, inflammation, disordersof cell growth and pathology of infectious diseases caused bybacteria. Therefore examination and interpretation of diagnostic datafrom samples is significant in determining an appropriate antibioticto be used and identifying the molecular changes associated withbacterial infections such as hematological and inflammation is thekey to this

Whythe antibiotics are not effective in treating diseases

1:The antibiotics are not effective in treating diseases due tobacterial resistance

2:Antibiotics are ineffective against treating viral infections becauseviruses lack cells

3:Antibiotics are less efficient in treating diseases because thelifespan of bacteria is

relativelyshort.

Evolution occurring in bacteria due to short time limit between generations,enable the bacteria to reproduce rapidly and mutate, thereby passingtheir new genes among themselves. This results into high resistancehence dominating a whole colony in a short period. The bacterialcontinue to multiply and survive causing more harm hence eliminatingthe effectiveness of the antibiotics. Some bacteria can also developthe ability to neutralize the action of antibiotics before it killsthem while others can resist the antibiotic by changing theantibiotic attack sites (Blair et al, 2015).

Onthe other hand, viruses lack cells hence making the antibioticsineffective the viruses generally live within the cell of otherliving organisms. The unique mechanism and machinery of viruses tomultiply and survive make the antibiotics lack proper target ofkilling the virus that causes fatal viral infections. Antibioticsusually work by targeting the growth patterns of bacteria but not inthe case of bacteria which has a complicated and different set ofreplicating machinery.

References

Blair,J. M., Webber, M. A., Baylay, A. J., Ogbolu, D. O., &amp Piddock, L.J. (2015). Molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. NatureReviews Microbiology.

McShan,D., Zhang, Y., Deng, H., Ray, P. C., &amp Yu, H. (2015). Synergisticantibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles combined withineffective antibiotics on drug resistant Salmonella typhimuriumDT104. Journal of Environmental Science and Health.

Bettiol,E., &amp Harbarth, S. (2015). Development of new antibiotics: takingoff finally. Swiss Med Wkly, 145, w14167.

Whalen,K. E., Poulson-Ellestad, K. L., Deering, R. W., Rowley, D. C., &ampMincer, T. J. (2015). Enhancement of antibiotic activity againstmultidrug-resistant bacteria by the efflux pump inhibitor 3,4-dibromopyrrole-2, 5-dione isolated from a Pseudoalteromonas sp.Journal of natural products.

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