Inancient times, there were various civilizations whose norms andcultures have had a significant impact in the modern society. Thesecivilizations had different social, cultural, and political practicesthat were acknowledged and respected. The study of civilizationsplays a paramount role in gaining an understanding of how variouscommunities came to existence. The paper focuses on various communityaspects of the Roman, Maya, and the Inca civilizations.
Socialand cultural aspect
TheInca society comprised of ayllus, family clans, who lived and workedas a group. A chief headed each clan, and families lived in thatchedroof houses constructed of mud and one stone. The women formed aparamount part of the Inca community, as their role was to take careof the children, weave, and cook.[ CITATION Adl12 l 1033 ].Typically, the function of the woman was to take care of thehousehold. Women were married at the age of sixteen, and men wereallowed to have one wife, except for the chief who was allowed tohave many wives[ CITATION Kra12 l 1033 ].
TheMaya society prohibited same-sex marriage and banished those whodefied the norms. People were also forbidden to marry the sister of adeceased wife, and mother’s sister[ CITATION Hut15 l 1033 ].Polygamy was not known, but people were permitted to have concubines.On the other hand, the Roman Empire focused on expanding itsterritory and accommodating people from different cultures andreligions. People had the freedom to join any religion, but on thecondition that their beliefs were not to cause any trouble in thesociety. Slavery and the slave trade were prevalent in ancient Romeas it remained to be a gray area. The native Roman language wasLatin, and it evolved over the time to romance languages of today[ CITATION Adl12 l 1033 ].Women could not hold a political office, or serve in the military.
Politicaland economic aspect
TheMaya consisted of various cities, ruled by a king. Throughout theMayan civilization, the city-states fought against each other todetermine the most powerful. Usually, they would pay tribute to thepowerful city-state so as to maintain peace within the region. Theeconomy thrived well between within the region as trade relationshipstightened and grew close[ CITATION Adl12 l 1033 ].Some of the goods traded between included precious metals, cacao, andagricultural products among others.
TheInca had an organized government with its headquarters at Cuzco. Itwas involved in the mining of precious metals such as copper, silver,tin, and gold as part of tax responsibility[ CITATION Kra12 l 1033 ].Besides mining, italso practiced farming and ensured available arable land was put intogood use. The economy was not founded on the money system, rather anexchange of goods and items.
Thewealthy and powerful families in Rome governed the city, forming thepatricians. The Senate was the governing body in the region withleaders being voted into office annually. The ancient Roman occupieda vast territory with a broad range of natural resources at theirdisposal. The economy concentrated on farming and trade[ CITATION Hut15 l 1033 ].A well-developed coinage system was in place, where precious metalcoins, bronze, and brass were in circulation.
Diplomaticand military aspect
TheRoman military officers were obligated with the roles of protectingthe legions and the frontiers in the Rhine and Danube Rivers. Thenavy aided in the supply, distribution, and transport within thelegions. Although most of the Rome’s wealthy came from trade,battle and conquest of various territories made the city a mightyempire[ CITATION Adl12 l 1033 ].Some of the Wars fought like the Punic Wars ensured the consolidationof Rome’s power and unity. The defeat of its trade rival, CarthageCity, guaranteed absolute control of trade over the region. However,as the empire grew and developed, it began to experience the impactsof foreign slavery, corruption, and greed.
TheInca civilization was on a high level of mobility, engaged in alarge-scale hand-to-hand battle, and built a network of fortressesthat protected its people from external attacks. The Incas wereinvolved in various conquest battles that gave them access tonumerous resources. The Inca rule exercised great diplomacy toacquire new territories with minimal bloodshed. However, a battle wasnecessary for regions where they faced resistance[ CITATION Kra12 l 1033 ].They expanded their kingdom outwards across South America whileseeking control of their neighbors’ territories. The Inca armywas a conglomerate of different ethnics conquered during theirexpansion missions[ CITATION Adl12 l 1033 ].
TheMayans were expert in the traditional forms of fighting such as theuse of bow and arrow, and used a protective armor that was made ofheavy quilted cotton[ CITATION Kra12 l 1033 ].Some of the military tactics they used included drum signaling,whistle, and built blockadesand dug ditches. Usually, the upright captives of war were sacrificedto their gods.
Thethree civilizations had diverse social, cultural, and politicalpractices that were significant for their prosperity. However, somecommonalities in the civilizations are evidenced through practicessuch as farming, mining, religion, and marriage. The knowledgeacquired from ancient civilizations helps answer myriad questionsthat surround the antiquity of humankind.
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Kramme, M. (2012). Mayan, Incan, and Aztec Civilizations, Grades 5 – 8. Greensboro: Carson-Dellosa Publishing.