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WhyWe have too Few Woman Leaders
Theexperts, who exams the characteristics of male and female management,cannot come to a consensus still. Some believe that successfulleadership – the inheritance of men, women can adjust to their styleof leadership only. The other suggests that in the process ofbusiness development, women’s management style shows manydifferences. The opinion that a woman cannot be a good leader, is astereotype in our society. Women who succeed in own business ormanaged to create a successful company and a great team, continue toprove the opposite. Consequently, if women are not present among thepolitical and business elite, the reason must be rooted in the womenthemselves, obviously – in their inability or unwillingness to takeappropriate place in these areas. Gender inequality persists afterthe introduction of the constitutional provisions that declare genderequality. The government and concerned stakeholders should createequal career opportunities for women by offering proper high schooland college education and enacting policies to promote equality inworkplaces because this will bring about economic, cultural, socialand political improvement in their status.
“Wehave a difficult problem between professional success and personalfulfillment”, Sheryl Sandberg. The society makes such an attitudetowards women, that targets them for priority fulfillment of familyresponsibilities, strengthening the traditional role of mothers.Theworld practice shows that the increase of women`s representation inthe highest legislative body is caused by the existence of laws whichregulating the representation of the sexes in the lists ofcandidates. For example, in the Scandinavian countries, the quota setby the government offices, but in England and Germany, the quotas setby the party, in Italy is required alternate candidates – men andwomen, in the party lists.
Nowadays,discussion of the Gender Strategy aimed at creating conditions forsustainable development and human potential, which impliesintegration of a gender component in all areas of public life – inpolitics, economics and culture. Such policy paper should suggest theelimination of the social sex asymmetry, which exists in the societystill. The necessity of the adoption of the Gender Strategy as statepolicy directions is due to the complexity of solving social oreconomic problems and to the activation of all social forces. Thisimplies a further increase of women’s role in society and theelimination of existing discriminatory gender asymmetries in suchsphere as economic resources, property, and distribution of domesticwork.
Itis obvious that the main condition for equality is economicindependence for women and men, namely, independent income. For theimplementation of the gender, it is important to provide a reductionof differences in earnings between men and women, especially in theirwages and to achieve equal rights and opportunities for women`saccess to economic resources, property, income, jobs, education,budget funds, loans. More than that, the aim is to create conditionsfor the effective connection between the parent or professionalfunction and to solve the problem of free choice.
Theeducational question is an important point in the success of thegender policy. Especially important is the introduction ofgender-oriented education – the inclusion of gender courses inthematic plans of educational institutions at all levels, as well asrefresher courses, a training program for managers and specialists ofall ranks. Additionally, the challenge in promoting women to seniorcivil service positions focuses on the training and retraining ofcivil servants, the introduction of some special courses aboutwomen`s issues in the public service, training of women leaders, theorganization of various international women`s symposiums,conferences, and “round tables”.
Thereare some specific features of female management, which is moreproductive:
-Women pay special attention to the moral and psychological climate inthe team: actively trying to create a favorable atmosphere for allsubordinates – encourage them to participate in the affairs, sharepower and information, encourage the full disclosure of abilities inthe workplace. Women have an ability to instructions, teachings, anddoctrine.
-Women leaders are considering a wider range of possible solutions andchoose the punishment for subordinates.
-During the conflict, women deeply delve into the essence of theproblem, analyze the causes.
-Women combine and change the social roles quickly – manager, businesswoman, on the other – wife, daughter, mother.
-In the context of risk, women-leaders choose the most cautiousstrategy of decision-making. They need more time to sort out, butthis solution is balanced and prudent.
-Women leaders are supporters of strict controls, provide collectivedecision-making within their teams. With subordinates behaveflexibly, combine intuition and diplomacy. In difficult situations,they make their strategy on the high motivation of employees.
-Women managers work creatively. They take a decision due to theirfeelings, intuition, and “female” logic (Worell 315).
Womenmanagers compete with male managers through implementing features offemale traits and qualities, such as:
-High educational potential.
-The scale of thinking, namely, the women’s ability to think aboutseveral matters simultaneously.
-A large organization, commitment, and consistency.
-Sociability. They quickly adapt to changing conditions.
-Responsibility is the nature of women leaders because they aremothers.
-Femininity, charm, cunning – natural features which women leaders useto address complex issues.
-Women leaders are more democratic and willingness to cooperate(Worell 233)
Thus,women are very important in politics, because they are changing theworld around objectively. Today it is clear that the fault of womenin the political process, the lack of full and parity participationof women in decision-making does not allow to find effective ways tosolve social problems, use women`s social experience and the abilityof coordination different interests. The gender imbalance in powerstructures has a negative impact on the quality of laws. Thus, theeconomic legislation, as tax, customs, monetary – focused on thecreation the more favorable conditions for the “male” sectors ofthe economy than the “female” industries mainly. Meanwhile, thewomen with their specific social experiences can balance the power,to make it more modern.
Thesexism in the educational system is well researched and documented.First, many studies show that teachers, educators, administratorsrelate to boys and girls in a manner that reflects their owntraditional sex-role stereotypes. Secondly, textbooks, tests, texts,and advertising include gender bias. For example, primers andeducational materials often show women and men, who engaged intraditional activities or professions. More than that, the languagesupports and creates gender stereotypes. The names of manyhigh-status professions only used the masculine gender, masculinepronouns: manager, businessman, psychologist, professor, lawyer. Theterm “business woman”, which refer to a woman in business hasspecial connotations in our culture sometimes. In addition, thetraditional literature shows girls and women as incompetent, timid,unprotected and unable to take effective action for their needs.Currently, many countries in Europe and America held a program toneutralize gender stereotypes, starting with kindergarten and school.For example, the program of the Ministry of Education in Norwayincludes leadership training for girls and training of caring aboutothers for boys. Developing countries, by contrast, go on the way ofsupport the gender stereotypes and gender role specialization. Third,the administrative hierarchy reflects the sex-role biases also. Whilemost educators – women, the percentage of women decreases in seniorpositions in the administration with the levels of the educationalsystem (Worell 265). The most unfavorable for a career is a situationwhen a woman does not complete her education and interrupts hercareer because of the family. Her professional interests are notstable yet, and a long break in professional activity leads to thefact that it is difficult for a woman to return to the professionalfield or continue an interrupted education. No matter what the sphereof the woman chooses, the conflict between home and career have asignificant impact on a career development. However, there is anunexpected conclusion in the works of researchers about breaking theusual understanding of women leaders: achieving high business status,women do not sacrifice family because of the career. Namely, amongthe modern women (mostly managers) the proportion of married andmothers is high.
Nowadays,in many countries, more and more women occupy a strong position inthe business, led the corporations, companies, go into politics.However, the phenomenon of the involving the women in management isstill unusual. There are two groups of factors which prevent thechoice of professional career: internal and external. Theseinfluences on the career choices of women due to the context ofgender bias. To the external factors which connect environmentalissues as, economic, social, educational and political, concernsgender socialization and institutional sexism. There are othersfactors as, parents, peers, partners and husbands, teachers, mentors,which demonstrate the influence of the role models, support, andpromotion or inhibition.
Finally,if a business women are taking new positions in management, there isnecessary professionalism and psychological readiness already, andthis may contribute to the conditions for acceleration of theadaptation and advancement of women leaders. These includesocio-economic and political transformations that promoteadministrative activity:
1)Special programs of training, retraining and advanced training ofwomen leaders
2)Support activities of women`s non-governmental organizations
3)Monitoring of compliance with legislation about the rights andguarantees of women and others.
Theseall above proves, at least, that it is a little information about thefeatures of the women`s management and people are prone tostereotypes in the perception of women in management. The resultsforced to reconsider some traditional notions about the features ofthe female control. It is obvious that the best manager of the newgeneration can listen, motivate and support employees. Namely a groupof people who have tremendous advantages in the implementation of thenew approach to management – are women. The next ten years willensure that a woman – not a worse manager than a man, and able toachieve their goals.
Worell,J. (2001). Encyclopedia of women and gender: sex similarities anddifferences and the impact of society on gender.Library.villanova.edu.Web
Sandberg,S. “Why we have too few women leaders”. TEDWomen, 2010.www.ted.com.