DAILY NOTEBOOK ABOUT NATURAL SCIENCE

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Effects of small-scalefarming on Southeast Asian forests

A study that is extensive has demystified how activities ofsmall-scale farming affect the SoutheastAsian rain forests. The results wereshocking regarding biodiversity, the impact on the environment, andthe economy (&quotSmall-scale agriculture threatens the rainforest,&quot2016). The farmers in Indonesia cut down severalforest trees and opt for monoculture, especially palm and rubbertrees. They say it is the easy way out of poverty. However,Yann Clough of Lund University’s science faculty and otherresearchers from Germany, Indonesia, New Zealand and Switzerlandfound that biodiversity decreases drastically. The forest losesimportance as a source of carbon, and leaching of nitrogen and othernutrients due to extensive fertilizer use(&quotSmall-scale agriculture threatensthe rainforest,&quot 2016). If nottackled, in 20 years’ time, the heavily arable land enjoyed byhumans shall be no more. The need for financial incentives and changeof method of production shall alleviate this problem. These detailsare available in the Nature Communications Journal section by YannClough and other researchers (&quotSmall-scale agriculture threatensthe rainforest,&quot 2016).

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) has been on the rise in manycountries especially in air conditioning and refrigeration. Theyheavily contribute to the greenhouse effectthat is escalating global warming where the ozone layer thickens andtraps ultraviolet rays from the sun (Davenport, 2016). The meeting inKigali on the 15th of October, 2016 saw an agreement ofmore than 190 countries to begin the elimination of HFC gassesas from 2019. HFC gasses affect humans andnature by creating the climate change and therefore, it isestimated that 85% reduction in HFC use by developed anddeveloping countries will lower about 0.5 degrees Celsius by the endof the century (Davenport, 2016). Alternatively, those with lowglobal warming potentials (GWP) likehydrocarbons, water, hydrofluoorefins(HFOs) and others can be used. Theinformation can be accessed in bothnational and international organizationslike the United Nations Environmental Program and the United StatesEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Davenport, 2016).

Environmental issues in Uganda

According to the Panda news, Ugandans are heavily dependent onnatural resources especially forests for fuelwood,and the need for clearance to create space for farming land.Surprisingly, around 6,000 hectares of forests arelost in just a month’s time. Meaning by the dawn of 2050,there shall be absolutely no forest in Uganda (&quotEnvironmentalproblems in Uganda,&quot 2016). There areno forests in Uganda’s 28 districts, and19 others have forest coverage of around 1% or below. Theseactivities reduce the fertility of land due to erosion-exposure. Thegorillas of the mountains then lack their habitat and are exposed topoaching. Other species of birds and snakesare left bare (&quotEnvironmental problems in Uganda,&quot2016). All these animals are beneficial to humans through touristattraction and enriching the environment. Environmental conservationmeasures have to be intensified andstringent laws enacted through the National Environmental ManagementAuthority (NEMA) of Uganda. Also, reforestation and economicupscaling have to be ensured to reduce the poverty levels that promptUgandans to destroy forests. The NEMA Uganda records substantiatethese details. Also, the Panda Newscontains the facts (&quotEnvironmental problems in Uganda,&quot2016).

The fish of the coral reefs and warm water

The increasing rise in water body temperatures is affecting theaquatic animals especially the fishes. Jacob Johansen of the TexasUniversity and other researchers carried out a study on damselfishcommonly found at the coral reefs. Under controlled conditions, theyincreased the temperatures by 2 to 4 degrees Celsius and found thatthe fishes reduced weight, and some died.Therefore, not all fishes can adapt to temperature change.Some species could be endangered,some of which are consumed by humans (Author, 2016). The MarineScience Today warns that measures have to be put in place to curbglobal warming. However, Johansen concludes that the fishes can beable to adjust to these changes as compared to other seafood. Humanswill lose their delicacies in the long run. The solution is to curbactivities that exacerbate global warming like the use of HFC gasses,industrial emissions, and open burning among others. Adoption ofclean energy can also improve the situation. The Texas University hassome of the details on the findings by Jacob Johansen and others(author, 2016).

Rampal Power Plant

In Bangladesh, the Rampal Power project meant to generateelectricity received criticism and protests from the locals and theinternational community (Harvey, 2016). Since the plant would use thePassur River and most of the wastes would be deposited into it, theproject would pose a risk to the marine animals and the humans whorely on the river for agriculture and fishing. Moreover, themangroves would be profoundly affected bythe pollutants introduced by the plant into the river. Also,coal would be used, and its source wasnot established. Sulfur is a harmful content of coal.Moreover, spills during transportation would contaminate the waters(Harvey, 2016). This was alikely effect on the environment andhumans. Other animals would be severelyaffected. The best solution would be an abortionof the project and do an analysis of otherpossible ways of generating power.

The Washington post has been on the forefront in airing this issuebecause of the environmental concerns. Moreover, the environmentalbodies in Bangladesh and India have details on this project (Harvey,2016).

Greatest polluter of the environment

The Atlantic news on China as the biggest polluter of the environmentreported increased environmental hazards in China itself, and therest of the world (Meyer, 2015). Combustion of fossil fuels such ascoal and gasoline has been on the rise in China. Dust and fogoccupied major industrial cities posing a risk to humans especiallyin respiratory conditions and skin diseases. These effects triggeredan immediate action from the Chinese PresidentXi Jinping (Meyer, 2015). While in Washington, the president signed adeal to cap the emissions beginning 2017. It is the most appropriateremedy to the menace. Additionally, the commitment to clean andrenewable energy was signed. China would also help third worldcountries in reducing carbon emissions through funding, research,and offer expert knowledge (Meyer, 2015).The agreement to jointly battle environmental hazards with the UnitedStates of America was vital. The recordsare with both governments and their respective environmental agencies(Meyer, 2015).

Pollution with nutrients is changing sea life

The pollution of seas, oceans and other water bodies by depositionof nutrients from cities, towns, industries, agricultural farms andother human activities is changing the life in the Marines(&quotNutrient pollution is changing sounds in the sea,&quot2016). The fish and other sea animals are gradually changing theirbehaviors. The research carried out by the University of AdelaideInstitute of Environment concluded that the ecosystems affected byeutrophication were dormant than the unaffectedones. They do not produce the sounds as usual.

The sound is vital for species in mating,finding shelter in coral reefs, scaring enemies among others. Thispollution harms the standard pattern of life of these marineanimals, and in the long run, they wouldreduce in number (&quotNutrient pollution is changing sounds in thesea,&quot 2016). Thesound is relevant for continuity of many species. Curbing thedeposition of the pollutants to water bodies improves the marinelife. For instance, adopting clean energy in industrial productionwill lower emissions that dissolve in water. The Landscape Ecologyjournal has these details. Also, the Science Daily news postsconfirm this information (&quotNutrient pollution is changing soundsin the sea,&quot 2016).

Deforestation due to coffee farming

In Honduras, there is an increased coffeefarming leading to massive deforestation. The national parks andrainforests have been deeply affected (&quotDeforestation -Mesoamerican Development Institute,&quot2016). The coffee that is Strictly HighGrown (SHG) has seen the need for firewoodto fuel the driers and deforestation tocreate farming space. When this is not handledin time, Honduras should be set for aridclimate due to loss of rain-generating forests. The agriculturalactivities and the arable farms shall become infertile due toexposure and erosion. Since agriculture is an economic engine inHonduras, uncanny measures have to be effected.Trees are a significant contributor tobeneficial climatic conditions, and anydestruction must be avoided. Actionsinclude reforestation, adoption of alternative agriculturalactivities like animal rearing among others. The MesoamericanDevelopment Institute reports that Honduras canalter things before getting to a more dangerous level (&quotDeforestation- Mesoamerican Development Institute,&quot2016). Environmental conservation laws and regulations may be helpfulin reducing deforestation (&quotDeforestation – MesoamericanDevelopment Institute,&quot 2016).

References

Author,M. (2016).&nbspCoralreef fish and warming water: move or adapt?&nbspMarineScience Today.Retrieved 17 October 2016, fromhttp://marinesciencetoday.com/2016/10/14/coral-reef-fish-and-warming-water-move-or-adapt/

Davenport, C. (2016).&nbspASequel to the Paris Climate Accord Takes Shape inVienna.&nbspNytimes.com.Retrieved 17 October 2016, fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/24/world/europe/vienna-sequel-paris-climate-accord.html?_r=0

Deforestation -Mesoamerican Development Institute.(2016).&nbspMesoamericanDevelopment Institute.Retrieved 17 October 2016, fromhttp://mesoamerican.org/deforestation/?gclid=CjwKEAjw7ZHABRCTr_DV4_ejvgQSJACr-YcwUAX8Qsc9hhRuFSYsBKyXs8xaSK7UxWCc02BGL6MCNhoC3wTw_wcB

Environmental problems inUganda.(2016).&nbspWwf.panda.org.Retrieved 17 October 2016, fromhttp://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/uganda/problems_uganda/

Harvey, C. (2016).&nbspAnew power plant could devastate the world’s largest mangroveforest.&nbspWashingtonPost.Retrieved 17 October 2016, fromhttps://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/07/18/a-new-power-plant-could-devastate-the-worlds-largest-mangrove-forest/?utm_term=.77465577ab5a

Meyer, R. (2015).&nbspChina,a Bastion of Communism, Is Using Capitalism to Fight ClimateChange.&nbspTheAtlantic.Retrieved 17 October 2016, fromhttp://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2015/09/the-worlds-largest-cap-and-trade-program/407371/

Nutrient pollution ischanging sounds in the sea.(2016).&nbspScienceDaily.Retrieved 17 October 2016, fromhttps://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160906103149.htm

Small-scale agriculturethreatens the rainforest.(2016).&nbspScienceDaily.Retrieved 17 October 2016, fromhttps://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161014092120.htm

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