Date Rape on College Campuses Annotated Bibliography

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DateRape on College Campuses AnnotatedBibliography

DateRape on College Campuses AnnotatedBibliography

AAUP,Policy Documents, and Reports. (n.d.). Campus sexual assault:suggested policies and procedures. Retrieved September 24, 2016,from&nbsphttps://www.aaup.org/report/campus-sexual-assault-suggested-policies-and-procedures

Thisis a website source that describes the issue of sexual assault incampuses. It describes and suggests procedures and policies toeradicate the problem. The members of this association believe thatfreedom to learn and teach is inseparable from creating a conducivelearning environment. The professors also agree that campusadministrations must provide the necessary ethical standards thatoffer effective internal policies and procedures. According to theauthors, there are strong reasons why school leadership shouldmaintain consistent and coherent policies throughout the institution. First, the consequences of sexual victimization are very severe. Itis apparent that sexual assault can lead to serious physical injuriesthat may require medical attention. Additionally, it may result intransmission of terminal illness such as HIV. Emotional trauma mayalso be a consequence of sexual assault, which may also requiremedical attention. The authors also argue that rape can lead to aninvestigation of a campus management. Therefore, the managementshould play the first role in establishing measures that preventsexual victimization in their college.

Thewebsite also explains that the Federal law has severe punishments forperpetrators of sexual assault and other related crimes. The authorsaccount for this by highlighting that Title IX mandates theinstitutions of higher learning to report cases of sexualvictimization and track any form of sexual misconduct that creates ahostile environment for female students. Further, the websiteoutlines that it is the faculty’s responsibility to protect theirstudents’ rights while they are in the institution. It is,therefore, plausible for the management to maintain sound policiesand procedures to ensure that they fulfill their obligation.

TheAAUP website is a credible source that is up to date on variousissues that affect students at the colleges. It describes sexualassault as one of the biggest problems that create a hostileenvironment for female students in the learning institutions. It isalso apparent the authors of this websites are experts whose primaryobjective was to protect the rights of every student wrote the site. Moreover, the website provides relevant inform that relates to daterape in college campuses and addresses the reasons why the issueshould be handled with immediate attention.

Bohmer,C., &amp Parrot, A. (2013). Sexualassault on campus: The problem and the solution.New York: Lexington Books u.a.

CarolBohmer is a public and international affairs lecture at theUniversity of Pittsburgh, while Andrea Parrot is a human servicestudies lecture at the University of Cornell. Bohmer and Parrot areboth experts on matters relating to rape. In this book, Bohmer andParrot argue that sexual violence is a major issue in campuses.According to them cases of rape and other forms of sexual abuse areunderreported. In their explanations, only a small fraction of thecases is solved through the campus judicial processes. Petitepercentage of the cases is reported to the police officers. Some ofthe cases reported to the university authorities are oftenmishandled, which cause more traumas to the victims. According to theauthor, 25 percent of female students in college experience sexualassault by the time they graduate. The authors also explain that thepercentage may be higher since many women who are violated do reportthe cases. According to the authors, no one seems to understand howto pursue cases of female students assaulted in campuses. Theauthors also give details of how the members of the society believethat rapists are men who believe that they are doing what other mendo.

Thisbook is still relevant to this topic as the authors have presented asolution to every person who is involved in the issue, particularlythe lawyers, service providers, administrators and social workers.The book is also relevant as it provides alternative measures thatcan be used to control campus rape. The authors have included anextensive chapter that explains ways to control sexual assaults inschools. For instance, the authors state that best way of preventingrape is by implementing and enforcing effective policies

Thedata and information presented in this book come from the analysis oflegal cases and doctrines, social science evidence and interviewswith the victims, their relatives, campus administrators and securityofficers. The book has broadly covered the severity and nature ofthe pressure that the college officials face in their attempt tosolve the cases reported to them regarding rape. Further, the bookhas covered other topics such as the relationship between the legalsystem and the campus in such cases, who litigate the defendant orthe college and the lessons that the university should learn fromsuch cases.

DeMatteo,D., Galloway, M., Arnold, S., &amp Patel, U. (2015). Sexual assaulton college campuses: A 50-state survey of criminal sexual assaultstatutes and their relevance to campus sexual assault. Psychology,Public Policy, and Law,21(3), 227.

Thejournal is a great contribution from a distinguished Ph.D. graduatein clinical psychology and forensic concentration, Shelby Arnold. Thejournal has incorporated three other renowned writers, DeMatteo,Galloway and Patel, who hold relative degrees in psychology, publicpolicy, and law. This article is the latest published about sexualassault. The article has been accredited by American PsychologicalAssociation and rated one of the best materials ever written inpublic policy and law.

Thisjournal has journal was written due to the great publication ofsexual assaults in campuses and varsities, noting the inadequateresponses by the institutions to these rape crimes. The material wasaddressed to academic administrators, legislators, and educationalpolicy makers, to raise facts on how to protect the victims, punishoffenders and curb rape in colleges and campuses. The reowned writersincorporated significant ideas and extensive research for all theacademics stakeholders. To tackle the problem of sexual assault inuniversities the article has extensively discussed suggestions e.g.the need to fully understand state sexual laws and the law capabilityto handle the existence of sexual assaults in colleges and varsities.

Fedina,L., Holmes, J. L., &amp Backes, B. L. (2016). Campus sexual assaulta systematic review of prevalence research from 2000 to 2015. Trauma,Violence, &amp Abuse,1524838016631129.

Inthis article, the authors have confirmed that sexual assault is amajor issue in the United States campuses and colleges. Fedina,Holmes, and Backes were the first researchers to conduct a systematicreview and produce findings from studies on college sexual assaults(CSA) available since 2000. According to the authors, the most commonforms of sexual violence include sexual coercion, incapacitated rape,attempted rape or even complete abuse. The authors also explainedthat the forms of sexual abuse varied extensively across studies.Nonetheless, the authors concluded that a significant percentage ofstudent experienced sexual abuse even in studies that showed lowvictimization rates. The authors have also highlighted the variousconsequences of sexual assaults such as sexually transmittedillnesses, chronic diseases, depression and post-traumatic stressdisorder. From the article, it is evident the federal government andcampuses are coming up with measures to solve the entire issue.

Thejournal is credible in that partners such as the public healthinstitutes, federal agencies, and international organizations haveendorsed it. The online journal is currently up to date with majorstakeholders taking part in the contribution of useful, reliablelearning materials. Further, the article is significantly relevant tothe topic ‘Date Rape on College Campuses’ since it providescredible information about abuse on college campuses. It alsoprovides information on various forms sex assaults that happen inuniversities. The authors also conducted extensive research throughquantitative data collection such as sampling, which makes it acredible source as most of the information was first either fromstudents who experienced sexual assault or whose relatives andfriends were assaulted in colleges.

Nonetheless,the article portrayed some few limitations. First, the authors didnot measure sexual oppression among student who was at a greater riskof assault including students with disabilities, LGBTQ students aswell student who had previous cases of sexual violation. Moreover,the study failed to investigate whether sexual victimization amongstudents at alternative campus education programs is in any waysimilar or disimilar to sexual victimization among typical collegestudents. Further, Holmes, Fedina and Backes failed to bring out thedifferences between the cultural and contextual difference betweenprivate and public colleges when weighing the occurrence of sexualassaults in various colleges and universities.

Howard,B. (2015,&nbspAugust 28). How Colleges Are Battling Sexual Violence.Retrieved September 24, 2016,from&nbsphttp://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/08/28/how-colleges-are-battling-sexual-violence&nbsp

Inthis article, Howard explains how many learning institutions arestruggling to fight sexual violence. According to the author, manycolleges are encouraging their students to act reasonably whenevertheir suspect a risky situation as a way of increasing campus safety. He also argues that the increased cases of sexual violence incampuses has called for the intervention of the White House, whichhas also prompted to the Department of Education investigatingapproximately 100 learning institutions and charged them withviolation of Title IX. The U S Constitution, Title IX of the Civilrights prohibits discrimination by gender. In an attempt to reducecases of sexual assault on campus, the bipartisan group of senatorshas created a Campus Accountability and Safety Act, which willrequire the coordination of the local police department to deal withsuch cases. According to the author, despite the fact thatDepartment of Education compiles statics relating to campus crime,cases of sexual violence are typically underreported.

Howardhas given out some of the ways on how colleges and universities aretrying to fight cases of rape in their learning institutions. First,campuses are looking for new ways of tackling sex education in theirschools. According to him, the traditional system of education mainlyfocused on improving knowledge of the problem rather than measure toprevent the entire problem. Nowadays, schools are authorizing adeeper dive into this subject. Secondly, universities and collegeshave decided to put the fraternities on notice. The author arguesthat college fraternities have been for many years a breeding groundfor extreme behaviors. Nonetheless, due to the increasing cases ofsexual assault in schools, the fraternities have come up with a newapproach to zero tolerance. Further, many institutions have placednew rules and regulations on a matter relating to alcohol takingwithin the institutions. Finally, colleges and universities arechanging g their response to the accusation. According to the author,female students feel more comfortable to report assault cases to theadministration than to the local police. However, if theadministration does not have proper policies to handle the cases,they end up being dissatisfied.

Jina,R., &amp Thomas, L. S. (2013). Health consequences of sexualviolence against women. BestPractice &amp Research Clinical Obstetrics &amp Gynecology,27(1), 15-26.

Thisarticle Jina and Thomas explains that sexual violence can result inadverse health consequences, which may include psychological,physical and reproductive. According to the authors, these effectsmay be fatal while others may lead to unhealthy behaviors. Moreover,the authors indicate that the consequences may result in significanthealth burden and therefore the service providers, non-governmentaland governmental agencies should consider it as a critical issue thatneeds to be addressed. For women who show early symptoms of assault,immediate medical care should be offered with plans for follow-up. Moreover, it is important to provide mental –health intervention towho women who are sexually violated since they are more likely to beaffected by post-traumatic stress disorder. According to theauthors, cognitive –behavioral therapy has been identified as thebest treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder compared topsychological debriefing. The authors also concluded thatimplementing an intervention program and routine screening ingynecology and obstetrics is valuable since reproductive healthimpacts are likely to occur.

Thisjournal has systematically reviewed and raid down finds studies aboutdate rape on colleges and campuses. The journal has laid down somehealth consequences that women encounter when they are victimized inthe learning institutions. Some of the consequences that have beenoutlined in this article include physical injuries, unwantedpregnancies, and transmission of sexually transmitted illnesses.

Skinner,J., &amp Gross, M. (2016). The ISSAS model: Understanding theinformation needs of sexual assault survivors on college campuses.College&amp Research Libraries,crl16-882.

Thisjournal is written by renowned writers Julia Skinner and MellisaGross. Julia Skinner is a Ph.D. holder at Kennesaw State Universityand Melissa Gross a Ph.D. holder at Florida State University. The twoauthors have made great contributions in matters relating to sexualassault in universities and colleges. The confirms that sexualvictimization is a common issue in campuses and yet underreported.The authors have come up with an (ISSAS) Information Seeking ofSexual Assaults Survivors model that seems the victims through theprocess of healing. The major objective of ISSAS model is to help inproviding information to survivors of sexual victimization throughacademic libraries. The authors conclude their study by providingsome thought of offering service to the survivors and creatingawareness regarding the issue. Mellisa and Julia also put a clearemphasis on maintaining agency and privacy as well as maintaining theappropriate professional role. The authors describe the ISSAS modelas a tool of seeking help and recovery in the area of psychology. Theauthors also conclude that the survivors fail to report these casessince they feel embarrassed and ashamed. For others, they feel whathappened to them is not important to report and they fear being askedfor proof.Skinner and Gross have also seen the importance ofaddressing the role of an expert. According to them, the librarian isnot law enforcement officials, counselors, medical practitioner.Therefore, they are required to share information with the survivorsin a manner that corresponds to their profession. Librarians have anobligation to report any form of sexual misconduct, assault orpestering to the relevant authorities.

Thearticle by Skinner and Gross is an article written by women, who havehigh thoughts of helping women who at one point of their lifeexperience sexual assault. The report provides strong arguments onhow the ISSAS model can be used to provide information to survivorsof sexual assault. The article also gives future directions andinsights of serving survivors within an academic library.

&nbspStotzer,R. L., &amp MacCartney, D. (2015). The role of institutional factorson on-campus. Reported rape prevalence. Journalof interpersonal violence,0886260515580367.

Thisjournal article is written by Rebecca Stotzer and Danielle McCartney, who have brought major contributions on matters relating to rape incollege campuslkses. The authors have recognized this as a majorconcern in many colleges, and therefore, need for immediateattention. In their study, MacCateney and Stotzer used a (RAT)routine activities theory to investigate some of the college –relatedaspects across 524 college campuses in the U.S to identify thefactors the of a University that are linked to increased cases ofsexual victimization. The authors conclude that there aresignificant factors that are linked to increased cases of sexualassault in these learning institutions. According to them theuniversity’s alcohol policy, athletic program, and the number ofstudents in the institution determine the level of sexual assault. The article has also extensively discussed the impacts ofunderstanding university community and ways to prevent sexualvictimization. For instance, an institution with a high number ofstudent is more likely to have many cases of sexual assaults. In suchan institution, students are likely to come from different culturalbackgrounds with students who do not have moral values. Secondly, aninstitution that does not have strict rules and regulating regardingalcohol taking is likely to have more of these cases. It is apparentthat drunkenness can lead to lack of self-control or even blackoutmaking it easy for rapist. Therefore, authors highlight that thecompany should establish rules and regulations that safeguardsstudents against sexual assaults.

Thisarticle is very relevant since it describes some aspect that can leadincreased incidences of rape within an institution. The article isbroad enough to provide some remedy measures to prevent such cases atany given time.

Wooten,S. C., &amp Mitchell, R. (2016). Thecrisis of campus sexual violence: critical perspectives on preventionand response.Routledge.

TheCrisis of Campus Sexual Violence : Critical Perspective on Preventionand Respons is a book written by Sara Wooten and Roland Mitchell.The authors recognizes that sexual assaults in colleges and campusesis an issue that not yet well addressed. In the book the authorshave presented evidence that the crisis gives scholars,practitioners, and administrators of higher education anunderstanding of the problems that universities face whenimplementing measures to curb sexual assault. The authors have done adeep study that investigates some factors that inhibit effectiveprevention.

Thisbook remains relevant to the topic date rape on college campusessince provides analysis of how rape has become a trending issue incampuses. By providing the necessary facts and statistics the authorshave presented the various challenges that learning institutions arefacing in an attempt to reduce cases of rape.

Yoffe,E. (2014, December 07). Theputative epidemic of campus rape is pushing colleges to adoptpolicies unfair to men.Retrieved September 22, 2016, fromhttp://www.slate.com/articles/double_x/doublex/2014/12/college_rape_campus_sexual_assault_is_a_serious_problem_but_the_efforts.html

ThePutative Epidemic of Campus Rape Is Pushing Colleges to AdoptPolicies Unfair to Menis a web article written by Yoffe. In this article, Yoffe argues thatcollege rape is a serious problem. Nonetheless, the efforts toprotect female students from this punitive behavior have resulted inmisguided procedures and processes that end up infringing the civilrights of men. It is has been put clear that perpetrators of sexualassault against should be punished. However, many men who arepersecuted with rape cases end up saying they were the one beingvictimized. Their argue that their rights have been violated throughgender discrimination.

Yoffe’sarticle is fascinating as displays a different side of the topic. Inmost sources, women are given the first hearing, disregarding men’sposition in the situation. The article clarifies that universitieshave established that deprive men their rights. It is also the onlythe article that claims that male students face higher rates ofsexual victimization compared to men.

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