Evaluationof Security Programs
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) refers to aproactive (as opposed to reactive) method of crime prevention andreduction of fear of crime by ensuring proper and appropriate designas well as effective use of built environment (Crowe & Fennelly,2013). The main objective/ goal of CPTED is to reduce the probabilityof crime occurrence through loopholes created by the environmentaldesign. The best benefits of CPTED are accrued if the approach isadopted at the earliest stages of designing. CPTD reduces crime andfear of crime through the following main ways: territoriality,surveillance, activity support, target hardening and alienatingprivate space from public space amongst others.
CPTED does not operate freely but under the governance of certainprinciples. These principles include natural surveillance, naturalaccess control, territorial reinforcement and maintenance andmanagement (Owusu et al., 2015). This paper provides anillustration of a real life application of CPTED principles atwell-known building in the United States the white house.
The principle of natural surveillance has been applied in variousaspects. The management of the white house seems to be well awarethat criminals do not like to be observed. The house is, therefore,under 24 hours surveillance. Going by the principles of the CPTED,the actual aim of natural surveillance even in the white house is notto keep the intruders away but to keep them under observation. Thewhite house has advanced video surveillance systems not only to keepthe intruders under observation but also to expose events in thewhite house to interested members of the public.
In compliance with CPTED’s principle of natural access control, thewhite house has a fence surrounding it and various gates and doorswith security personnel to keep out unauthorized people. In additionto this, there are various locks and window barriers inside the whitehouse that ensure access to authorized persons only (Owusu etal., 2015). The fact that the white house is more of a publicproperty than a private one has seen its management put properentrances and exits to ensure that both pedestrians and vehicles movein and out of the president’s residence in such a manner thatminimizes criminal opportunities.
The black iron fence that surrounds the white house is a sign ofcompliance with the territorial reinforcement principle of CPTED.This makes members of the public to have respect for the property andhave it in mind that it is temporarily private as the president’splace of residence. Good maintenance and high level landscaping aswell as the iconic nature of the building signals private ownershipof the property to any intruder as opposed to public ownership.
A sizable amount of funds has been set aside by the government formaintenance and management of the White House. This is not only doneto retain the iconic nature of the building but also as a CPTED. Adilapidated place is more likely to attract crime and criminalactivities than a well maintained and managed the place. In anadvanced level of maintenance and management, the white house has, aswell, subdivided the interior white house area into sectionsaccessible by members of the public, those that are inaccessible andthose that are only accessible by special invitees. This principleshould be considered at the earliest stage of design because theearlier it is discovered, the more the benefits accrued (Crowe &Fennelly, 2013).
To sum up, CPTED is an effective and efficient proactive approach tocrime prevention. Its adoption and complete compliance with the fourprinciples would see an organization or the applicant save themselvesfrom many criminal activities. Organizations should seek to adoptthis approach at the earliest stage of design since it is expensiveto reconstruct an already executed design that had not consideredCPTED principles.
Crowe, T. D., & Fennelly, L. J. (2013). Crime preventionthrough environmental design (Vol. 2). Wlatham, MA:Butterworth-Heinemann.
Owusu, G., Wrigley-Asante, C., Oteng-Ababio, M., & Owusu, A. Y.(2015). Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) andbuilt-environmental manifestations in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana. CrimePrevention & Community Safety, 17(4), 249-269.