Hospital Acquired Pneumonia

  • Uncategorized


HospitalAcquired Pneumonia

HospitalAcquired Pneumonia

Hospital-acquiredpneumonia is an infection that occurs when a patient is in hospitaland affects the lungs. This infection is mostly acquired when apatient is in the ventilator in the ICU. The major problem that is ofconcern is the rate at which patients contract pneumonia while in theventilator. As a matter of fact, the mechanical ventilators have beenseen to increase the rate of pneumonia contraction (Parisi, et al.2016). The rate has even been seen to increase by fourteen digits. Inthe work site, the problem has been seen to be caused by thecommunication failure among responsible for taking care of the oralcares of the patients. It seems that every responsible officerexpects the other to do the job, leaving the patients vulnerable. Theinfection has been significant to consider as it has increased thehospital stay for many patients. The mortality rates have alsoincreased due to the contraction of the lung infection.

Thecoordination in the work site has been seen to be a major barrier tothe reduction of the contraction of nosocomial infections. This hasbeen evidenced by the existence of miscommunication between the majorhealth practitioners. They seem to be unaware of who is responsiblefor the oral cares of the patients (Parisi, et al. 2016). The lack ofa plan leaves the patients vulnerable to the ventilator acquiredpneumonia. Ignorance of the health practitioners cannot be ruled outamong the health personnel. They seem not bothered by who isresponsible for the oral cares of the patients in the ventilator.This results in the loss of more lives and increased rate ofunnecessary hospital stay.


Theobjective of the study is to reduce the rate of the ventilatoracquired pneumonia. This is expected to reduce and result in tovarious benefits. Such would include the reduced patients stay in thehospital, especially due to VAPs. The long run aim of the study is toensure that there are no casualties in the hospitals due to the VAPs.This will go a long way in the saving of hospital expenses that aresettled by the citizens unnecessarily.

Thisobjective is to be attained by the application of the ventilatoracquired pneumonia bundles. The bundles form a group ofrecommendations that will need to be implemented by the healthmanagement in the entire health system (Parisi, et al. 2016).Restructuring will need to be done to accommodate the proposedbundles. These bundles will include elevating the head of the bed,frequent determination of the possibility of intubating, treatment ofthe peptic ulcer as well as prophylaxis of the DVT. Theimplementation of these stipulations will require clear and efficientcommunication from the top management to lowest health level ofmanagement. The entire procedure ought to have a specific goal thatthe implementers are targeting. This will give a direction of how thework needs to be done.


Evidence-basedarticles were traced in the CINAHL database. Three of the articlesinvolved a quantitative study while one involved a quantitativestudy. All the articles, however, had a common goal of reducing therate of VAP using the VAP bundles. To start with, the firstevidence-based article was found in Sinuff et al. (2013). In thisarticle, Sinuff argued that improvements in terms of VAP could beachieved by putting in place better guidelines. These guidelines wereto be attained by observing the health staff carry out their dutiesincluding, hand-washing, oral care, and also evaluating how possibleit is to wean a patient from the ventilator. In after the differentevents conducted on 330 patients, Sinuff approved that VAP ratesdecreased in the following order 47 (14.2%), 34 (10.3%), 38 (11.5%),29 (8.8%). The P-value, in this case, was observed at 0.03, that isP=0.03 (Sinuff et al. 2013).

Theother evidence-based article supporting the study was reviewed fromTang et al (2015). The study was done in a regional hospital, using 7ICU beds and one intensivist. The study was based on the on theimplementation of the VAP bundles. Educational programs were offeredto the health team during the period. In the period, eight episodeshad been noted down. As time passed by, the last nine months of thestudy detected no occurrence of the VAP (Tang et al 2015).

Theother evidence-based article, in this case, is found in the Paris etal. (2016). The article talks about a study that was done on 30 bedsand conducted in three phases. The first phase took 14 months thesecond took 40 days of education intervention, and thepost-intervention was the last phase, known as the post-interventionphase. There was a reduction of the VAP intensity, from 21.6 eventsto 11.6 events out the tested 100 cases. After educating the nurses,results improved from 10.8% to 89.8% while the p-value improved to0.0001, that is P=0.001 (Paris et al. 2016).

Finally,the other evidence based article was taken from Guiterres da Silva etal, (2012). This study involved a qualitative study on the impact ofthe implementation of the VAP bundles. Implementation of the VAPbundles improves the health situation of the patients (Guiterres daSilva et al., 2012). Interviews and the interviews provided evidenceimplementation of the VAP bundles reduced the VAP cases.


Theanticipated steps call for the team involved in the health sector tocome out and work together towards the reduction of VAP. The teamthat ought to work out the plan is made of management, the nurses,the physicians, and educators. The major barrier that is likely tooccur during the implementation process is the objection by somemembers of the team, mostly those opposed to change. The role of theCNL will hence be to educate the team that the changes are takingplace for the betterment of the health system. Successful completionof the process will be achieved by conducting the continuousevaluation of the progress and injecting the relevant correctionsthat may be necessary.


Parisi,M., Gerovasili, V., Dimopoulos, S., Kampisiouli, E., Goga, C.,Perivolioti, E., … &amp Nanas, S. (2016). Use of Ventilator Bundleand Staff Education to Decrease Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia inIntensive Care Patients. CriticalCare Nurse,36(5),e1-e7.

Close Menu