Immunization

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involves the administration of a vaccine to prevent an attack from aninfectious disease. Vaccines cause the stimulation of the immunesystem within the body thus conferring protection against subsequentinfections.

Inmy capacity as the physician, vaccinations needed by the patientinclude

  • BCG (tuberculosis) vaccine

  • MMR vaccine

  • Varicella zoster vaccine

  • Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) vaccine

  • Hepatitis B

  • Meningococcal vaccine

BCGvaccine is administered to offer protection against tuberculosis. Thecausative organism is a bacterium referred to as Mycobacteriumtuberculosis.Its route of transmission is through the air whereby a healthy personmay become infected as a result of close contact with an infectedperson who either coughs or sneezes. This disease affects the lungshowever, other parts of the body may be affected too (Hatherill etal. 263). The clinical manifestations of the illness include fever,chronic cough that may contain bloody sputum, fatigue and nightsweats.

TheMMR vaccine is administered as a combination vaccine to treat threediseases measles, mumps, and rubella. The measles virus causesmeasles. The disease is transmitted through the air as a result ofthe coughs and sneezes of infected people. The clinicalmanifestations include fever, runny nose, the eyes become red, sorethroat, and the body is covered by a rash. Mumps virus causes mumps.The mode of transmission of the virus is through respiratorydroplets, or an infected person gets into contact with a healthyperson. The clinical manifestations include muscle aches, loss ofappetite, fever, fatigue and parotitis. The rubella virus causesrubella. Transmission of the virus occurs through the air via coughsof infected people. The clinical manifestations include a sorethroat, low-grade fever and a rash that commences on the face beforespreading to the entire body.

Chickenpox(varicella) is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Transmissionoccurs through sneezing or coughing. Additionally, contact with theviral particles through inhalation or the physical touch ofchickenpox blisters contribute to its spread. The clinicalmanifestations include fever, fatigue, itching and a blister-likerash (Heininger 1).

Tdapvaccine is a combination vaccine targeting three diseases tetanus,diphtheria, and pertussis. Tetanus is a bacterial disease caused byClostridiumtetaniwhich produce neurotoxins that interfere with the nervous systemthereby restricting muscle movement. Infection occurs when dirt gainsaccess into a wound or a cut (Milligan et al. 111). Clinicalmanifestations include muscle spasms and difficulty in breathing.Diphtheria is also a bacterial disease caused by Corynebacteriumdiphtheria.Transmission occurs through inhalation or direct contact withcontaminated objects. Clinical manifestations include fever, sorethroat and a dense covering in the back of the throat. Pertussis iscommonly referred to as whooping cough. It is a bacterial diseasecaused by Bordetellapertussis.It is transmitted through the respiratory route via inhalation ofrespiratory droplets from an infected person when they sneeze orcough. Clinical manifestations include a runny nose, fever, later on,vomiting and rapid coughs. Prevention of these three diseases isthrough Tdap vaccine.

HepatitisB significantly affects the liver. The causative organism is thehepatitis B virus. It’s prevented through hepatitis B vaccine. Thevirus spreads when body fluids such as blood are transmitted from aninfected person to a healthy person. Infection may occur throughbirth or sexual intercourse (Al‐Rshoudet al. 61). The clinical manifestations of the disease includefatigue, yellowish skin, dark urine, vomiting and abdominal pain.

Meningococcalvaccine is administered to protect against the meningococcal diseasewhich is caused by bacteria. Some of the bacterial involved includeStreptococcuspneumonia,Neisseriameningitides,and group B Streptococcus.Transmission of the bacteria is from person to person through therespiratory route for example, coughing, sneezing or kissing.Clinical manifestations include drowsiness, neck stiffness, jointpain and severe headache.

Theadditional vaccines that I would recommend for the patient that wouldbe beneficial in ensuring safety from infections include:

  • Polio vaccine

  • Influenza vaccine

  • HPV vaccine

  • Hepatitis A vaccine

Poliomyelitisis a disease that is caused by the poliovirus. The fecal-oral routefacilitates the transmission of the virus. Additionally, contaminatedfood and water may also contribute to the infection. Clinicalmanifestations include fever, the neck becomes stiff, headache,vomiting, and the limbs become painful. Infected individuals arelikely to become paralyzed (Jog 285). The disease can be preventedthrough the polio vaccine.

Influenzavaccine is given to offer protection against influenza viruses whichcauses influenza commonly referred to as the flu. The common route oftransmission is the respiratory tract. This involves inhalation ofrespiratory droplets from an infected person when they cough orsneeze. Additionally, contact with contaminated surfaces alsofacilitates transmission of the virus. Clinical manifestationsinclude rhinitis, fever, sore throat, headache, myalgia, and malaise.Vomiting, nausea and otitis media is also common among children.

HPVvaccine protects against infection (cancers) from humanpapillomavirus. The route of transmission is through sexual contact(Brotherton et al. 106). However, non-penetrative routes also exist,for example, during birth. Clinical manifestations may include theappearance of warts and cancers linked to the reproductive organs(Brotherton et al. 108).

HepatitisA damages the liver. The causative organism is the hepatitis A virus.Transmission occurs through the fecal-oral route. The disease mayalso be caused as a result of direct contact with an infected person.Clinical manifestations include jaundice, abdominal pain, diarrhea,malaise, and fever. Vaccination plays a significant role especiallyfor those at risk.

Inconclusion, there is no doubt about the immense benefits ofimmunization. It is always better to prevent a disease rather thancuring it. It is also notable that some diseases lack a cure but canbe avoided through vaccination.

Workscited

Al‐Rshoud,Firas, and Arri Coomarasamy. &quotPatient with Hepatitis B or C.&quotGynecologicand Obstetric Surgery: Challenges and Management Options(2016): 61-63.

Brotherton,J. M, Giuliano, A. R., Markowitz, L. E., Dunne, E. F., &amp Ogilvie,G. S. &quotPapillomavirus Research.&quot (2016).

Hatherill,M, Scriba, T. J., Udwadia, Z. F., Mullerpattan, J. B., Hawkridge, A.,Mahomed, H., &amp Dye, C. &quotBCG and New Preventive TuberculosisVaccines: Implications for Healthcare Workers.&quot ClinicalInfectious Diseases62.suppl 3 (2016): S262-S267.

Heininger,Ulrich. &quotVaricella prevention–a lifelong and challengingaffair.&quot SwissMed Wkly146 (2016): w14351.

Jog,Pramod. &quotGoodbye Switch and Imminent Polio Victory.&quot Indianpediatrics4.53 (2016): 285-288.

Milligan,Gregg N., and Alan DT Barrett. Vaccinology:An Essential Guide.John Wiley &amp Sons, 2015.

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