Instructions

  • Uncategorized

For questions 1–6, Part A is asking you to partially translate the argument by making the proper substitutions. Part B is asking you to choose which substitution results in a counter-example, thus invalidating the argument.Base your answers to questions 7–11 on Categorical Proposition 1A: &quotAll wiretaps that are approved without a warrant are surveillance techniques that are not legal.&quotFor questions 12–16, select the correct answer for each multiple choice question.For questions 17–19 you are given a statement, its truth value in parentheses, and an operation or relation to be performed on that statement. You must identify the new statement and the truth value of the new statement. Base your response on the classical square of opposition.Base your answers to questions 20–22 on Syllogistic Form 1A given below:Some M are not P.No S are M.Some S are not P.Base your answers to questions 23–25 on Syllogistic Form 6A given below:No P are M.Some S are M.Some S are not P.For questions 26–30, select the correct translation for each problem.Base your answers to questions 31–32 on Proposition 1A, given below:

&nbspBase your answers to questions 33–34 on Proposition 2A, given below:

&nbspFor the given statement, use an ordinary truth table to answer the question that follows.Statement 1A(N → K) ↔ (K → N)

Question1

PARTASomecashmere sweaters are fashionable garments, so some cashmere sweatersare not suede jackets, for some suede jackets are not fashionablegarments.&nbspWhich of the following correctly expressesthe form of this argument?

Some C are F.Some C are not S.Some S are not F.

Some S are not F.Some C are F.Some C are not S.

Some C are not F.Some C are not S.Some C are F.

Some F are not S.Some F are C.Some S are not C.

Some C are F.Some F are not S.Some S are not S.

Question2

PARTBSomecashmere sweaters are fashionable garments, so some cashmere sweatersare not suede jackets, for some suede jackets are not fashionablegarments.&nbspWhich of the following substitutionsproves the argument invalid?

C = animals, F = cats, S = mammals.

C = dogs, F = animals, S = mammals.

C = dogs, F = mammals, S = fish.

C = mammals, F = animals, S = dogs.

C = cats, F = mammals, S = animals.

Question3

PARTBIfcell phone companies screen text messages, then freedom of speech isthreatened. Thus, freedom of speech is not threatened, because cellphone companies do not screen text messages.&nbspWhichof the following substitutions proves the argument invalid?

C = Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, F = George Washington was assassinated.

C = Joe Smith was beheaded, F = Joe Smith is dead.

C = Abraham Lincoln was beheaded, F = Abraham Lincoln is dead.

C = Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, F = Abraham Lincoln is dead.

C = Abraham Lincoln was beheaded, F = Abraham Lincoln is not dead.

Question4

PARTAIfcell phone companies screen text messages, then freedom of speech isthreatened. Thus, freedom of speech is not threatened, because cellphone companies do not screen text messages.&nbspWhichof the following correctly expresses the form of this argument?

If C then F.C. &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbspF.

Not F.

Not C. &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp

If C then F.

All C are F.

C. &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp&nbsp

F.

If C then F.

Not C. &nbsp &nbsp&nbsp

Not F.

If C then F.

Not F. &nbsp &nbsp&nbsp

Not C.

Question5

PARTAAllcontainer ships that are ocean-going are air polluters. Hence, allcontainer ships are air polluters.&nbspWhich of thefollowing correctly expresses the form of this argument?

All C are A.All C are O.

All C are A. &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbspAll C that are O are A.

All CS are O.All CS are A.

All C are O.All C are A.

All C that are O are A.All C are A.

Question6

PARTBAllcontainer ships that are ocean-going are air polluters. Hence, allcontainer ships are air polluters.&nbspWhich of thefollowing substitutions proves the argument invalid?

C = husbands, O = married, A = men.

C = men, O = humans, A = mammals.

C = men, O = married, A = husbands.

C = wives, O = divorced, A = women.

C = cats, O = animals, A = dogs.

Question7

InCategorical Proposition 1A, the subject term is:

Surveillance techniques that are not legal.

Warrant

Surveillance techniques.

Wiretaps.

Wiretaps that are approved without a warrant.

Question8

InCategorical Proposition 1A, the copula is:

Are.

Are not.

All.

Affirmative.

Are not legal.

Question9

InCategorical Proposition 1A, the quantifier is:

Are.

Particular.

All.

Universal.

Are not.

Question10

InCategorical Proposition 1A, the quality is:

Not.

Universal.

Negative.

Affirmative.

Particular.

Question11

InCategorical Proposition 1A:

The subject term is universal and the predicate term is particular.

The subject term is distributed and the predicate term is undistributed.

The subject term is undistributed and the predicate term is distributed.

Both the subject term and the predicate term are distributed.

Both the subject term and the predicate term are undistributed.

Question12

Whichof the following categorical propositions is in standard form?

No mutual funds are completely without risk.

No physicians are immune from making mistakes.

Not every restaurant serves organic food.

Some carwashes are solar-powered operations.

All sleep aids are not drugs without side effects.

Question13

Theproposition &quotNo flight delays are occurrences welcomed bypassengers&quot is an:

I-type.

U-type.

E-type.

O-type.

A-type.

Question14

Giventhe categorical proposition &quotSome teaching careers are notrewarding occupations.&quot If the quality but not the quantity ischanged, the resulting proposition is:

Some teaching careers are rewarding occupations.

All teaching careers are unrewarding occupations.

No teaching careers are rewarding occupations.

All teaching careers are rewarding occupations.

Some teaching careers are unrewarding occupations.

Question15

Giventhe categorical proposition &quotNo corporations are real persons.&quotIf the quantity but not the quality is changed, the resultingproposition is:

No real persons are corporations.

Some corporations are not real persons.

All corporations are real persons.

Some corporations are real persons.

No corporations are not real persons.

Question16

Giventhe categorical proposition &quotAll Emmy winners are celebrities.&quotIf both the quality and the quantity are changed, the resultingproposition is:

No Emmy winners are people who are not celebrities.

All people who are not celebrities are people who are not Emmy winners.

No Emmy winners are celebrities.

Some Emmy winners are celebrities.

Some Emmy winners are not celebrities.

Question17

AllA are B. (T) &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbspContrary

No A are B. (Und.)

All B are A. (Und.)

Some A are B. (T)

No A are B. (F)

No A are non-B. (T)

Question18

SomeA are not non-B. (F) &nbsp &nbsp &nbspContradiction

Some A are non-B. (T)

All A are non-B. (T)

Some B are not non-A. (F)

Some A are non-B. (T)

Some A are B. (T)

Question19

Somenon-A are not B. (T) &nbsp &nbsp &nbspSubcontrary

Some non-A are B. (Und.)

No non-A are B. (Und.)

All non-A are B. (F)

Some A are B. (T)

Some non-B are not A. (T)

Question20

ForSyllogistic Form 1A, after filling in the Venn diagram,

Areas 2 and 3 are shaded, and there is an X on the line between areas 1 and 4.

Areas 5 and 6 are shaded, and there is an X on the line between areas 1 and 2.

Areas 2 and 3 are shaded, and there is an X in area 1.

Areas 1 and 2 are shaded, and there is an X in area 3.

Areas 1 and 2 are shaded, and there is an X in area 3.

Question21

ForSyllogistic Form 1A, the mood and figure is:

EAE-4

IEI-1

OEO-3

OAO-2

OEO-1

Question22

ForSyllogistic Form 1A, the argument is:

Invalid, exclusive premises.

Invalid, illicit major.

Invalid, undistributed middle.

Valid, no fallacy.

Invalid, drawing an affirmative conclusion from negative premises.

Question23

ForSyllogistic Form 6A, after filling in the Venn diagram,

Areas 3 and 4 are shaded, and there is an X in area 5.

Areas 3 and 4 are shaded, and there is an X in area 2.

Areas 3, 4, 5, and 6 are shaded.

Areas 5 and 6 are shaded, and there is an X on the line between areas 3 and 4.

Areas 6 and 7 are shaded, and there is an X on the line between areas 2 and 3.

Question 24

For Syllogistic Form 6A, the mood and figure is:

IEO-2

EAO-1

EIO-3

AIO-1

EIO-2

Question 25

For Syllogistic Form 6A, the answer from the Boolean standpoint is:

Invalid, existential fallacy.

Invalid, illicit minor.

Invalid, drawing a negative conclusion from a negative premise.

Valid, no fallacy.

Invalid, undistributed middle.

Question 26

Either Breitling has a diamond model and Rado advertises a calendar watch or Tissot has luminous hands.

B v (R • T)

(B v R) • T

(B • R) v T

B • R v&nbspT

B • (R v T)

Question 27

If Movado offers a blue dial, then neither Fossil is water resistant nor Nautica promotes a titanium case.

Piaget has a gold watch only if both Seiko has leather bands and Breitling has a diamond model.

Gucci features stainless steel also, Fossil is water resistant given that Cartier offers a stop watch.

&nbsp

Movado and Nautica offer a black dial if and only if Piaget has a gold watch.

&nbsp

Given that A and B are true and X and Y are false, determine the truth value of Proposition 1A.

&nbspTrue

&nbspFalse

In Proposition 1A, the main operator is a:

Tilde (~).

Wedge (v).

Double Arrow (↔).

Dot (•) .

Single Arrow (→).

Given that A and B are true and X and Y are false, determine the truth value of Proposition 2A.

&nbspTrue

&nbspFalse

In Proposition 2A, the main operator is a:

Wedge.

Tilde.

Dot.

Single Arrow.

Double Arrow.

Question 35

Statement 1A is:

Contingent.

Inconsistent.

Consistent.

Tautologous.

Self-contradictory.

Question 36

Statement 2A is:

Consistent.

Self-contradictory.

Tautologous.

Contingent.

Logically equivalent.

Question37

Giventhe pair of statements, use truth tables to determine theirrelationship:

&nbspThesestatements are:

Logically equivalent.

Valid.

Contradictory.

Consistent.

Inconsistent.

Question38

H→ ~MM&nbsp &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp&nbsp~H

Denying the Antecedent (DA)—invalid.

Modus Ponens (MP)—valid.

Affirming the Consequent (AC)—invalid.

Modus Tollens (MT)—valid.

Hypothetical Syllogism (HS)—valid.

Question39

~D→ N&nbsp&nbspD&nbsp &nbsp &nbsp&nbsp~N

MP—valid.

MT—invalid.

DA—invalid.

AC—invalid.

Invalid.

Question40

~S~S&nbsp→&nbspF&nbspF

MP—valid.

AC—valid.

MT—valid.

AC—invalid.

Disjunctive Syllogism (DS)—valid.

Question41

Sv ~TS&nbsp &nbsp &nbsp&nbsp~T

DA—invalid.

Constructive Dilema (CD)—valid.

Invalid.

Destructive Dilema (DD)—valid.

CD—invalid.

Completethe truth table to show whether the following argument is valid orinvalid. If the argument is invalid, you must specify acounter-example.

Premise1: J → (K→ L)Premise 2: K → (J → L)Conclusion: (Jv K) → L

J

K

L

J &nbsp → &nbsp (K → L)

K → &nbsp(J → L)

(J &nbsp v &nbsp K) &nbsp→ &nbspL

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspF

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspF

&nbspT

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspT

&nbspF

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspT

&nbspF

&nbspT

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspT

&nbspF

&nbspF

&nbspT

&nbspT

&nbspT

Question43

Proofby Natural Deduction – Propositional Logic. Use a direct proof toshow that the following argument is valid.

Premise1: (E • I) v (M •U)Premise 2: ~EConclusion: ~(E v ~M)

Question44

Proofby Natural Deduction – Predicate Logic. Use a direct proof to showthat the following argument is valid.Premise1:&nbsp&nbspPremise2:&nbsp&nbspConclusion:&nbsp

(Lx• Mx)v(~Lx•~Mx) –hypothesis

LetQ= Lx, R =Mx

2.(Q v (~Q•~R))•(R v (~Q•~R))—distributivity of v

3.(Q v ~Q)•(Q v~R)•(R v~Q)•(R v~R)–distributivity of v

4.T•(Q v~R)•(R v~Q)•T —tautology

5.T•(Q v~R)•(R v~Q) —idempotency of T

6.(Q v~R)•(R v~Q) simplification

7.(R &gt Q)•(Q &gt R) material implication

8.Q = R tautology

9.N&gt~ (Q=R) —hypothesis

10.(Q=R) &gt ~N contrapositive of #9

11.~Kc modus ponens from #8 and #10

12.Mc v Kc hypothesis

13.Mc disjunctive syllogism fr

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