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  1. Answer 7 of the 8 questions below in short essay or enumerated form. Each correct answer counts for 12 points. Be sure and re-state each question at the top of each answer

  1. Explain ‘reapportionment’ in terms of why and when it is needed.

Reapportionmentrefers to the redistribution of representation in the legislature,especially in the allocation of United States Congress seatsaccording to the figures of a census as required by the constitution.It is needed when the initial distribution cannot sufficiently fundthe projects and sentences. It is usually required after every tenyears.

  1. Briefly explain the main provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Themain provisions of the Voting rights of 1965 include Section 2 andSection 4. Section 2 bans racial discrimination in nationwide voting,Section 4 and 201 bans literacy tests nationwide.

  1. Identify two forms of ‘unprotected speech’ and elaborate on one of the forms.

Twoforms of unprotected speech are defamation and obscenity. Defamationrefers to the situation where a person’s reputation is damagedthrough slander or libel. In defamation, the reputation of a personis damaged by the use of either spoken or written language.

  1. Explain how the Heller v. DC and McDonald v. Chicago opinions changed the traditional interpretation of the second amendment

Theopinions of the Heller v. DC and McDonald changed the interpretationof the second amendment. The first opinion is that they shouldcontinue with their longstanding prohibitions on the possession offirearms by felons and the mentally hill, or laws that forbid safetyof guns in sensitive areas. Another opinion was that they shouldcontinue to keep and carry arms, and hence the Second Amendmentintroduced more regulation in terms of firearms.

  1. Explain how the US Supreme Court developed their rationale for declaring ‘privacy’ to be a ‘fundamental right.’

  2. Briefly, explain two of the compromises on slavery that the authors of the Constitution accepted to ensure ratification.

Therewere several compromises on slavery that the authors of theConstitution accepted to ensure ratification. Two of thesecompromises are the three-fifths compromise and the Greatcompromise. The three-fifth compromise meant that three-fifths ofpeople taken as slaves would now be counted as a population of astate. In the Great Compromise, the authors had a determination thatthe representation in the House of Representatives would then bebased on the population of each state.

  1. Explain what obligations accrue to States under the ‘full faith and credit’ clause.

Thereare several obligations that accrue to states under the ‘full faithand credit’ clause. Under the ‘full faith and credit clause’the states should recognize the legislative acts, judicial servicesand public records. The clause also prevents the movement of partiesfrom one state to another.

  1. Explain ‘log rolling’ as a legislative device and comment on why it is listed as one of the practices described as ‘Congress at its worst.’

Logrolling refers to a practice of legislative assemblies in which twoor more legislators make an agreement to trade a bill that one care alittle about in exchange of one which is more important. The practicehas been described as ‘Congress at its worst’ as the statesmenturn themselves into political hacks.

  1. Identify the steps the house of Congress take in transforming a bill (proposed law) into a finished document sent to the president for his disposition.

Thereare many steps taken by the house of Congress in transforming a billinto a finished document that is to be sent to the president for hisdisposition. First of all, the bill will be referred to the committeeand then subcommittee for further review. After the review andapproval of amendments, the proposed law is scheduled forconsideration in the house and the senate. The finished document isthen sent to the president and it becomes a law if the presidentsigns it or if it remains on the president’s desk unsigned for tendays.

  1. Research the answers to two of the three questions below (use of the Internet is acceptable)

  1. Who is the current Chairperson of the Senate Homeland Security Committee? What does the Committee do? What state does the Chairperson represent?

Thecurrent Chairperson of the Senate Homeland Security Committee is RonJohnson. The Committee on Homeland Security which was previouslyknown as the Committee on Governmental Affairs is now the chiefoversight committee of the Senate of the United States. The work ofthe committee is to investigate, conduct oversights on the operationsof homeland security and also to pursue fraud cases and office abusein the government. Another work of the committee is that it hasjurisdiction over the Postal Service in U.S. The Chairperson of theSenate Homeland Security Committee represents Wisconsin.

  1. Who is the current Vice Chairman of the United States Joint Chief of Staff?

Thecurrent Vice Chairman of the United States Joint Chief of Staff isGen Paul Joseph Selva. Gen. Selva was confirmed as the 10thVice Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff in 2015. He is now thesecond-highest-ranking military officer in the United States. Gen.Selva replaced the Navy Adm. James A. Winnefeld, Jr.

  1. Answer all three questions related to the case: Cooper v. Aaron (1958)

  1. What were the main issues of the case?

  2. How did the Supreme Court rule in this case?

  3. What were the main reasons the court ruled the way it did?


Inthe Cooper v. Aaron case, the main issue was that the Governor andLegislature of a state had claimed that there was no duty on theofficials of the state to obey the orders of the federal court thatrested on the interpretation of the court of the United StatesConstitution. This case specifically involved some actions by theGovernor and Legislature of Arkansas upon the premise that they werenot bound by a holding in the Board of Education. The holding on theBoard of Education v. Brown was that the Fourteenth Amendment hadforbidden States in using their governmental power of barringchildren from attending schools where the state participated in themanagement of property and funds because of their race. Thepetitioner wanted the court to uphold the suspension of the plan ofLittle Rock School Board to do away with the segregation of publicschools.

TheSupreme Court made a ruling on the Cooper v. Aaron case in which theyheld that the states were bound by the decision of the court and mustenforce them even if the states had a disagreement with them(Caravelis and Robinson 120). The Supreme Court also ruled that thestate could not pass legislation that undermined the ruling of thecourt in the Brown V. Board of Education.

TheCourt made a ruling in the Cooper v. Aaron case in 1958 by statingthat states should not pass legislations that undermined the decisionof the Brown v. Board of Education. The main reason why the courtruled the way it did was because they wanted to enforce integrationand also because they accepted the findings of the District Courtthat the educational progress had dropped and would continue droppingif the conditions were permitted to continue (Caravelis and Robinson120).


Caravelis,Cyndy and Robinson, Mathew. SocialJustice.Routledge, 2015. Print.

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