Instructor`s name

  • Uncategorized


Kaepernickdid not bring Politics into Sports

Therelationship between politics and sports is like that of water andoil. They do not mix nor do they move together. By playing thenational anthem during competitive sports, the element of politicscomes in, and it may result in adverse and unnecessary aggressionbetween players. By playing the US national anthem in the NFL games,the result was an aggression against the government that is viewed asbeing biased. As per Kaepernick, the national anthem, and the flagmade him resent the country as he observed that it is oppressive tothe people of African American descent.

Byplaying the national anthem in games involving competitive teams fromthe same country, it makes no sense since each is patriotic bychoosing to represent a country in his homeland rather than choosingto play outside the country. Such gestures are also not fair to thoseplayers from foreign countries who play their trade in the US. Manycitizens may seem not to be sensitive to such an issue since theyseem to be comfortable with the idea of the national imagery of theircountry. However, these patriotic symbols often bring out an image ofwhat patriotism means to all viewers and listeners. Differentindividuals can interpret the symbols in a variety of ways atdifferent times [CITATION Vox16 p 94 l 1033 ].

Sportsare meant to bring people together, and as such, by playing thenational anthems, it brings rivalry based on political ideologiesrather than a mere sportsman competitive nature. Politics shouldnever be allowed to interfere with competitive sports whose focus isto determine the best athlete rather than a politically motivatedsupport. Racism has always been reflected in most sportingactivities, and by playing the national anthem amongst players of adifferent race, the conflict often explodes. This is becauseindividuals see such performance ignores the national problemconcerning it. As such by playing the national anthem to people whofeel ignored and exploited by their country makes it look like thevice has been accepted as part and parcel of our daily lives. Itshows non-commitment to changing the evil. The only aspect that canbe used to enable acceptance, integration and bringing the end tosuch practice is by engaging in professional sports [CITATION The16 p 14 l 1033 ].

Sincesports is an integral element in our current society as shown by thevarious supporter bases for different sports clubs, the mainchallenge is its popularity which entails that most citizens if notall are always in the stadiums cheering or tuned to their televisionwatching the proceedings. Sports are means of social integrationamong the citizens and should not be used as a means of transferringpolitical ideologies with the aim of drawing the political reactionfrom the audience. Therefore, when playing the national anthem duringthe match, it draws different reactions from different mindedcitizens hence creating some political tension between the supporterssince no action involved would as such go unobserved. Any incident ofdiscrimination, favoritism or racism against any player will make bignews and will be seen by all citizens creating a more politicallytensioned country [CITATION Smi13 p 1 l 1033 ].

Theoutburst by Kaepernick was mainly due to the witnessed discriminationthat had been observed in the league. Both on and off the field,discrimination was rife as evidenced by the number of minoritycoaches in the discipline. The discrimination based on race toindividuals who wanted to participate in the NFL grew so high thatrules were developed to allow such people to get involved. The RooneyRule, however, was a step backward as it meant that the only way toensure for inclusiveness, rules had to be created. Such affirmativeaction poorly reflected the society, and by playing the nationalanthem, it will not draw a patriotism but creates further hatredbetween the citizens of who are viewed as the oppressed and thoseseen as the oppressors [CITATION Vox16 p 28 l 1033 ].

Mostsports supporters often look forward to sports as a way to forget thepolitics of the land since it is a voluntary association and activitythat if not interfered with, will create a connection betweenindividuals from different political sides. Playing the nationalanthem politicizes the game hence causing disunity among fans.Matters of politics are so robust and big as compared to sports thus,it is not reasonable and acceptable to play national anthems duringprofessional games. The National Anthem should be explicitly left tomatters regarding celebrating the military progress, and it shouldnot have a place in sports events. There is no reason for cheeringfans to show their loyalty and devotion on their citizenship whenwatching entertainment events [CITATION Smi13 p 85 l 1033 ].

Playingof the national anthem was mostly used to draw patriotism during theera of the world wars where it served as a means of motivatingcitizens who would gather during particular games. The nationalanthem was played before the start of the game to remind thespectators that the government wanted their support. While factoringnational representation in sports, the impact of the national anthemhas diminished due to the gains already achieved, and focus should bedirected to matters of national concern such as discriminations.However, since the era of the world wars is gone, there is no need tocontinue such practice given the injustices existing in the society.The anthem by being repeatedly played, it loses the sense of prideand the patriotism impact it used to draw. Therefore, it is bettersuited that such use of the national anthem should be reserved formatters of national importance such as the Olympic Games,international sports matches involving various countries or meetingsinvolving officials of different countries [CITATION Vox16 p 43 l 1033 ].

Inprofessional sports, patriotism does not always reflect the truepatriotism it is just but a source of entertainment that is intendedto make people feel good. Sports should be all about enjoyment ratherthan a way of drawing people to a particular professional opinion.Thus, playing of a national anthem is not a way to show respect tothe country. Instead, it creates a division between citizens who aremeant to be fans of the sport as they have different politicalopinions and has the potential of creating a rift between them and asa result, the sport will in the long term be ignored due to itspolitical nature. Furthermore, the national anthem should not be usedto make money but should be used to create patriotism, and this canbe achieved by stopping the playing of the national anthem duringprofessional games as practiced by European professional championshiptournaments that involve teams from different countries [CITATION Smi13 p 74 l 1033 ].


Smithsonian. 17 February 2013. 17 October 2016. &lt

The Washington. A brief history of ‘The Star-Spangled Banner’ being played at games and getting no respect. n.d. 17 October 2016. &lt

Vox. Kaepernick didn’t bring politics into sports. The NFL did that by playing the anthem. 3 September 2016. 17 October 2016. &lt

Instructor`s name

  • Uncategorized


TheYellow Paper

Theperception of women in the society has been uniform across the globe.In other words, the female had a particular role guided by their men.For instance, they are perceived to be homemakers and thereby theirauthority lies within their homes. Nevertheless, with the changingglobe, the perception of women has also been changing in manysocieties. Nowadays, women indulge in leadership and politics amongother influential posts previously dominated by men. Even with thegrowing calls for women empowerment, some communities have notembraced the move. In that regard, this paper will illustrateGilamana’s critique of this perception in “The Yellow Wallpaper.”

Beforethe 20th century, the males were responsible for assigning anddefining female roles. Even though all women were controlled by themale’s determination of behavior, the middle-class section sufferedthe most. The men enacted a philosophical jail that imperiled andmuzzled women. This concept referred to as “the Cult of TrueWomanhood,” encouraged victimization of women. The Domesticity andPurity cults were described true womanhood. In other words, these twoaspects were central to defining a real lady. Struggling under theapparent munificence of the Domesticity cult, women were confined totheir homes or some private sphere. They were portrayed as servantsattending to the various needs of the family. Moreover, the puritycult mandated women to stay pure and virtuous in marriage. Inaddition to that, the aspects encouraged them to remain modest.Spiritual piousness and compliance were peripheral beliefs in thisideology. Through this criterion, men would insure the docility andpassivity of the women. As such, religion would pacify their desiresthat seemed to deviate from the set standards. Submission inferredvulnerability and reliance on the patriarchal head [CITATION Cha92 p 2 l 1033 ].

Gilmansupported reviewed duties for females, whom, she supposed, ought tobe on equal political, social, and economic footing with their fellowmen. For instance, in one of her popular works, “Women andEconomics,” she proposed that women should work outside theirhomes. In other words, they should not be confined into house chores.Instead, they should be awarded opportunities, even outside theirhomes. According to Gilman, women ought to be financially independentof the men. She even suggested that women and men should share theirdomestic chores. In her assertions, Gilman was trying to championautonomy among the women. Women should not be left at the mercy oftheir fellow men regarding financial matters. In addition to that,they should call on their men to help in domestic chores [CITATION Cha92 p 65 l 1033 ].

Inthe past, the male society relished mobility. They reaped enormousbenefits from both the private and public spheres. They obtaineddevelopment from the women within the private arena. They thenenjoyed competition in the public sphere where they attainedidentity. Within the public sphere, men made decisions that improvedor rather showed their positions within the society. In the process,they exploited women, particularly due to their biological makeup. Attimes, men blackmailed the women to render them immobile. During thiscaptivity, the females did not venture in the public spheres with theperception that they did not belong there. The females were perceivedto be emotional servants. In fact, their lives were entirelydedicated to the welfare of the family and other home matters. Thesewere the necessities to maintain stability within the society. It isagainst the implausible weight applied by men to hold control thatfemales had to stir. They tried to outweigh the common descriptionsof a woman’s duty. They undermined the dogma placed on them, thusallowing a redesigning that led to a New Womanhood. As demonstratedby Charlotte Perkins Gilman, in her writing, she strived to overthrowthe restrictions of male-controlled society to write. She venturedinto a male dominated field to highlight the vitality of women in thesociety [CITATION Cha92 p 3 l 1033 ].

Theyellow wallpaper is figurative of the True Womanhood Cult that linkswomen to the family and homes. As depicted by Charlotte Gilman, thefemale population was restricted to the set structures that weredetermined by men. Women are habituated to consent these borders andpersist in sticking within the private sphere. Anyone who tried totamper with the complicated virtues would be deemed to be an enemy ofGod. Apart from that, he/she would be portrayed as an enemy of therepublic and civilization. Outside the yellow paper, women confrontedthe tainted authority that men exerted over females, escaped theircaptivity, and generated for themselves a novel conceptualresponsibility that involved entrance into the public sphere [CITATION Cha92 p 5 l 1033 ].

Thewomen depicted by Gilman defied the patriarchal ideologies to make adifference in the society. They would go beyond the contractions ofthe creed, the True Womanhood Cult. The presence of the marriageinstitution where the men were portrayed as the dominant beings andwielded control forced the women to abide. This concept permitted theperpetrators to mishandle the women to their benefit. Nevertheless,the women emerged. Due to this, the idealizing of a woman’s duty inthe home and family ghettoized women, excluding them from the publicsphere was negated. Unbound, the women grabbed the right toself-assertion. Responding to coercion, women nauseated against theemployment of female gender roles. The True Womanhood Cult could nolonger construe womankind. Instead, it has now developed theself-establishment that culminated to the inception of New Womanhood[CITATION Cha92 p 5 l 1033 ].


Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. &quotThe Yellow Paper.&quot January 1892. Document. 17 October 2016.

Instructor`s name

  • Uncategorized



Serialkillers are individuals who murder three or more people in asequential manner that is broken in between, normally regarded as thecooling off period. The act takes place under abnormal circumstances.Understanding serial killers is a hectic practice due to the natureof the event. Therefore, this paper will give an in-depth analysis ofthe reasons serial killers indulge in the practice. Most of themenjoy the act of torturing or killing people. It is, therefore, vitalto comprehend whether it is an inherent or acquired practice. Ingeneral, this paper will try to analyze the mind of a serial killerwith the purpose of understanding them and the acts they commit.

Achromosome abnormality is one of the reasons that triggers serialkilling. According to Dr. Helen Morrison who is a researcher involvedin this matter, chromosome abnormality that begins to develop duringpuberty is a common cause. Dr. Helen Morrison has interviewed over135 serial killers across the globe with the aim of establishingtheir motives. Serial killers, especially men develop and start toshow the homicidal tendencies in their adolescence when thechromosomal abnormality displays itself. However, researchers do nothave the precise gene identity, the fact that most serial killers aremen results in this assumption. Research is still ongoing todetermine why and how the gene changes. This notion can also besubstantiated by the fact that most serial killers murder their firstvictim in the puberty stages. The serial killers appear in this modedue to the lack or change of these chromosomes [CITATION Abb121 p 46 l 1033 ].

Serialkillers may also develop this attitude at tender ages. Though thereis no much evidence backing up this notion, it is believed that thistendency is deeply ingrained. As an infant, it is impossible tochoose the person to offer care. However, as the babies develop, theyacquire an attachment to the primary caregiver. However, serialkillers develop a feeling that they are separate from the world.Therefore, the lack of attachment which is crucial to mounting a fullpsychology is deficient among the serial killers. It is due to thislack of development that the murders do not empathize with theirtargets. They may hunt in different ways without developing anemotional affection to the targets. Unlike an angry individual whomurders his wife’s lover due to jealousy, a serial killer has nosuch attachment. To them, the victims are just objects who do notdeserve appreciation for the fear and terror. As such, they do notmurder for motives they do it to kill an object [CITATION Abb121 p 46 l 1033 ].

Someof the most gruesome serial killers are also found to haveundeveloped brains. For instance, back in 2013, Joanna Dennehy whowas a mother of two murdered three males and dumped them. Some dayslater in broad daylight, she stabbed a man and then another withinnine minutes before fleeing with his dog. The killer laughed in thecourtroom while being queried on the crimes. Another killer JeffreyDahmer promised to continue killing if granted the chance. IsraelKeyes also cracked jokes in the courtroom on the location of thebodies after admitting to killing more than ten victims. The lack ofremorse has been a common theme among the serial killers. In thatregard, as stated by a University of Pennsylvania professor ofcriminology Adrian Raine, underdeveloped brains has been attributedto the serial killing actions. According to the professor, the serialkillers lack the dorsolateral cortex and ventromedial cortex that arecrucial portions of the brain. The former is associated with theabilities to learn from mistakes while the latter is involved in thedecision-making. As such, these people ought to be treated as personswith mental disorders [CITATION Eli151 p 38 l 1033 ].

Someserial killers are forced to adopt this nature due to social issues.For instance, child abuse, neglect, and bullying result inpost-traumatic stresses that lead to these behaviors. A good examplecan be drawn from Charles Manson who was a famous serial killer. Thelack of supportive family backgrounds can, therefore, lead to someonedeveloping serial killer instincts. The serial killers can also livea double life. Most of them can afford smiles just like normal beingsbut perform ill activities at odd hours. For instance, KeithJesperson who killed more them eight women between 1990 and 1995,particularly prostitutes was depicted as a happy father. The mediaeven dubbed him “The Happy Face Killer.” Even with his busyschedule as a long-distance truck driver, Jesperson could find timeto spend with his children. However, his daughter Melissa Moore wasshocked to learn that her father was a serial killer. As such, theyknow how to play around with people’s emotions [CITATION Ber12 p 97 l 1033 ].


Socialproblems and deficiency in development can be associated with theacts of serial killers. Some link social injustices like bullying,child abuse, and neglect as the cause of killing people. However,most researchers believe serial killers have underdeveloped brains.They have no remorse and lack the sense of attachment due to theunderdeveloped brains. They enjoy torturing or killing people becausethey are deficient of chromosomes that bring about the human nature.Though understanding them may be quite hectic due to the varyingnature of serial killing practices, most of them are consideredmentally ill. In other words, they have a mental disorder that can beinstigated by the environment.


Brogaard, Berit. &quotThe Making of a Serial Killer: Possible Social Causes of Psychopathology.&quot 7 December 2012. 14 October 2016.

Nixon, Eli. &quot10 Chilling Glimpses Into The Minds And Lives Of Serial Killers.&quot 23 July 2015. 14 October 2016.

Rogers, Abby. &quotA Terrifying Glimpse Into The Mind Of A Serial Killer.&quot 8 June 2012. online document. 14 October 2016.

Instructor`s name

  • Uncategorized


EarlyAmerican Literature

Throughouthistory, states have come a long way regarding civilization. Thesociety has not only implemented significant ideologies, thegovernments, and the political sphere has seen distinct changesrelating to the method of rule and interactions with the citizens.This is not to say that the road to the current situation has beensmooth. On the contrary, almost each republic has not achieved allits ideals now. Most people would want to brag about things likedemocracy, equality, access to public facilities and so on. However,the truth of the matter is that these injustices, inequalities, andmalpractices still exist in the society. The worst part is that theyare present in higher levels than expected. However, the world hasnever seen as much tension between the national ideals and realitiesexperienced than during the years of industrialization andcivilization. The United States of America is not an exception inthis case. This paper looks at these strains and analyses themaccordingly.

Thetension between U.S. National Ideals and the Realities confrontingthem.

Itis the sentiment of many individuals that the United States is theultimate place to be. A dwelling where anyone can make a new lifethat is lucrative and pleasant disregarding one’s background andlife history. One might even be led to believe that there are equaltreatment and an opportunity to attain the American Dream for theirfamilies. Issues related to racism, religious aspects, and sexualorientation do not lead to discrimination and inappropriatetreatment. A region where freedom and liberty reign supreme for allpeople without the divisive social constructs. Concerning theeconomy, the ideal thought portrays the maximization of revenue, freemarket trade, and high-end excellence businesses. Maybe also paymentof taxes is intact, there are security, education law and order andregulations that protect the interests of the people. Additionally,the sentiment flows over to the perfect government that reaches outto the benefit of the citizens. People have good and well-payingjobs, great vehicles, adequate finances and time for vacations.Reality check. This glorious place full of good things only exists inthe thoughts of those who are uninformed and the idealistic liberalsof the highest level.

Thereal picture of the events that take place in the United States sincethe past is completely different from the ideas aforementioned.Contrary to the above statement, it is a society that requires highskills and qualification and possible luck to be able to make it.Although social mobility is decreasing as you go upwards, there aresocial evils that have persisted to the extent of being endemic andpassed down from generation to generation. One of these tensionsbetween ideals and realities is the slavery of the people of color.The novel by Frederick Douglass describes the abuse and mistreatmentof the slaves. The author gives an outline of his experiences thatstretches the complete timeline of his life as an example of whathappened to the other African-Americans at the time. Despite havingwhite slave owners and abolitionists, the fact remains that theideals of liberty and equality were not the reality of thehappenings. Over the years, Discrimination against the minoritypopulation has not ended. Instead, it has evolved to the mistreatmentof the definable ethnic groups to the religious judgment of Muslimsand even homosexuals.

TheNarrative of the Life of Frederick sheds more light about the stressbetween the ideals of the American Nation and the Realities that tookplace. His illustrations are multidimensional, describing the aspectsof slavery, religion, education, family and the visions for America.Apparently, the loud cry signified the total deviation of the actualhappenings from the epitome of the social interactions. The whitesapplauded their civilization and liberty, yet deep within theirpractices, the practice of slavery remained rooted. Only a fewliberals took the act of slave ownership as a deed that was wrong andunjust. Frederick writes, “The white children could tell theirages. I could not tell why I ought to be deprived of the sameprivilege” [ CITATION Fre95 l 1033 ].Apparently, not only was he suffering but also denied even the verybasic of rights. A shocking revelation is that despite the passageof the nation’s constitution, lawmakers still tweaked the lawsregarding slavery, not recognizing them as free humans. As such, thisis a classic example of the conflict between the ideals and thetruth.

TheCapitalist model of the U.S is also corrupted into one that can onlybe termed as pseudo-corporate. It is characterized by a state whereonly a few select persons can reach the top and amalgamate massivewealth, political and societal influence over others. In this way,these individuals can prevent others from excelling and becoming partof this rich realm. There is no better illustration of such asituation than the story by Washington Irving, which is commonlyknown as The Legend of the Sleepy Hollow. In this short story, theauthor gives a narration about a poor teacher (Ichabod) who intendedto marry a wealthy man`s daughter. However, one of the residents(Brom Bones) who also had an interest in the same woman played aghostly prank of the Headless Horseman on the tutor eventuallydriving him away never to be seen again. Several interpretations tothis writing exist, but regarding this topic, the main theme seems toindicate the disparities between members of a high social class inthe society and the have-nots. The ideals clearly state that equalityis a fundamental element in the United States. Politicians, theclergy and community leaders advocate for the equal treatment,respect, and opportunities for all people. However, the situation onthe ground is quite the opposite. The impoverished individuals in thecommunity can be likened to Ichabod, the wealthy to the gorgeous ladyand the practical people to Brom Bones. As such, the have-nots lookfor means to get something out of the rich. The rich on the otherhand flaunt their wealth and possessions while at the same time notallowing room for sharing. The people who benefit are those willingto go to greater extents to achieve their dreams, just like Brom.Despite the laws and guidelines that are expected to create aconducive environment for business, self-sustenance, and generalwell-being, income disparities are present between top classindividuals and the rest. Unemployment rates continue soaring togreat heights. Just like the character Brom Bones, the majorinternational corporates now use malicious methods to deter otherbusiness groups and benefit themselves. The tension is also seen bythe commotion and disagreement in the political sphere, where briberyis rampant in the passage of certain legislations. The lawmakers areobliged to the rich and they thus develop policies that tend todirect wealth towards the already wealthy group [CITATION Was15 p 97 l 1033 ].

FenimoreCooper’s novel The Pioneers is not left behind in this analysis ofidealism versus realism. The writing describes the process in which awilderness was transformed over time into a more civilized community.In this book, the author augments the naturalist ideas with theevents that take place in the United States. The conflict betweennature and civilization is significantly brought out consistently,where the thoughts and perceptions of the characters influence thechanges that take place in the surroundings. The scenario is furtherexemplified by the debate that leans more towards the inability ofcivilization to move away from its characteristics of arrogance andwastefulness. It is at this juncture that the natural andenvironmental aspects come into play. Since the establishment of thepolitical and geographical areas in the world, two groups havedistinctly been revealed. One supports the continued civilizationwhile the other warns of the looming danger of interfering with theecosystem amid the development that takes place. A host of laws andregulations aimed at governing the human surrounding includingindustrial emissions, pollution, global warming, conservation ofnature and waste management among many others. Ideally, thesestipulations were put in place for the good of man. The things thathappen tell an entirely different story.

Theenvironment has seen its share of pollution over the decades withcivilization taking the greatest blame. The strain is quite visibleas the two groups’ battle against each other. The regulation laidare barely adhered to as well established industries use their powerand resources to sway the regulating bodies. People are no longercaring for the plants and animals, as the constant growth demandsmore timber and other natural resources encroachment has attainednewer heights. Cooper in his citations expounds more on thisphenomenon. He expresses the importance of having utmost respect tothe land while at the same time condemning the greed and selfishnessportrayed by man. In his illustrations, the writer envisions themerging of civilization and nature in a co-existing relationship. Hedescribes the wilderness as a unique and unexplored region andcompares it to the complexity of America. In one of the conversationsbetween two of the characters, he writes that “It is much better tokill only such you want, without wasting your powder and lead, thento be firing into God’s creatures in such a wicked manner” [CITATION JFC35 p 75 l 1033 ].

Inconclusion, one cannot fathom the disparity between the idealsituation and the reality in the United States. The level ofdiscrepancy is way above what we expect. This is not to say thatthere are no ideals at all. No. the problem is founded on the factthat so many interrelated factors that are mostly human prevent therealization of these ideals. Greed, disrespect, lack of equality andvalue for human life, ignorance, amidst many other dynamics of life.Still, rather a large group of people who continue advocating for theimplementation of the ideal statutes. However, the truth remains thatachieving such as state is not an easy feat. The pressure between theideals and reality continue to thrive as the human culture,activities and beliefs evolve. In the end, the poor, the sick,minority, uneducated, immigrant’s employees and any other personwho doesn’t fall in the top class are likely to feel the pinch ofthis tension.


Cooper, J.F. The pioneers, or the Sources of the Susquehanna: a descriptive tale. Paris: J. Smith, 135. Document.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Dover Publications Unabridged edition, 1995. Print.

Irving, Washington. THE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW. Minneapolis: Lerner Publishing Group, 2015. Document.

Instructor`s Name

  • Uncategorized

Radiation Exposureand Children

Medical imaging plays a pivotal role in the accurate diagnosis andproper treatment of the various diseases. The majority of medicalimaging exams rely on radiations to generate crucial diagnosticinformation. Examples of the tests that rely on radiation includeplain X-ray, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography (CT). According toShah &amp Shari, “Medical radiation technologists performapproximately 60 million CT scans every year in American and about 7million of them involve children” (243). The effectof a single diagnostic procedure that uses radiation on a patient isusually negligible. However, some people may end up going through aseries of radiological examinations. While long periods of exposureto radiations may affect everyone, children are the worst hit due tovarious reasons such as their developing brains and the rapid celldivision taking place in all parts of their bodies. Besides, ascompared to the adults, children have many years for the radiationsto trigger complications such as cancer. This paper discusses theeffects of long-term exposure to radiation on children in terms ofcausing the various types of cancers and mental retardation.

Stochastic effects of radiation may result in children developingcancer. Stochastic effects of exposure to radiation occur when manycells are killed but are modified resulting in changes that may bereflected on the daughter cells. Studies show that children’sexposure to radiation increases the risks of these persons developingcertain types of cancers. Cancer develops when the transformation ofcells as a result of exposure to radiation involve the somatic cells(World Health Organization). Some studies suggest that “25% oftumor types in children tend to be more radiosensitive” (Pearce,et al., 499). As such, children have higher chances ofdeveloping the different types of cancer when they are exposed tohigh doses of radiation. Children are more vulnerable to exposure toradiation as a result of the relatively high cell division takingplace in their body as they grow up. During childhood, a person’sDNA is usually susceptible to radiations, which provides room forcancerous cells to form. Apart from developing cancer, children maypass hereditary diseases to their descendants if the transformationdue to early exposure to radiation involves either the sperm cells oroocytes. Radiation exposure from x-rays may damage the children’sreproductive cells over a period. As compared to adults, childrenhave many years to live, and this provides room for the affectedcells to mutate. This increases the risk of the affected child’spassing the cancerous cells to his/her offsprings (World HealthOrganization).

Exposure to ionizing radiation during childhood increases the risk ofa person developing thyroid, breast, and leukemia cancer. Severalstudies on the survivors of atomic bombs support the argument thatradiation exposure increases the chances of developing leukemia. Dueto the inadequate data “follow-up studies on approximately 35, 000survivors of atomic bomb provide most of quantitative data regardingthe likelihood of radiation-induced cancers” (Shah and Shari 244). In most cases, a single computed tomography scan exposes a patient tomore radiations compared to what happens during atomic bomb.According toPearce, et al., when CT scans that deliver about 50mGyare used in the treatment of children, it increases the risksdeveloping leukemia threefold. Pearce and colleagues also report thatthe possibility of developing cancer is higher when the exposureoccurs in childhood and start to decrease between 10-15 years afterexposure.

On the other hand, breast cancer risk is closely associated withradiation exposure, especially during childhood. Research shows thatthe risk of developing breast cancer increases when high doses ofionizing radiation exposure occur at young ages. Certain types ofradiation, such as the CT scans involve a high level of ionizingradiation that increases the children`s chances of developing cancer.Ionizing radiation tends to be completely carcinogenic since it canstart, prompt and progresses cellular changes that result in cancer.According to World Health Organization, studies of survivors ofatomic explosion show that the likelihood of developing cancer washigher for women who were below 10 years at the time of theexplosion. Similar studies show that women exposed to repeatedfluoroscopy have higher chances of developing breast cancer. Inaddition to leukemia and breast cancer, early exposure to ionizingradiation increases a child’s chance of suffering from thyroidcancer. According to the World Health Organization, thyroid glandtend to be highly vulnerable to radiation during childhood. As such,the risk of developing thyroid cancer after exposure to radiation ishigher for children and decrease as a person ages. The World HealthOrganization reports that after the Chernobyl incident, the chancesof developing thyroid cancer among the survivors increased over100-times, particularly in areas where the contamination was highestsuch as in the Gomel region. For example, the World HealthOrganization reports in this region about 200 children who werediagnosed with thyroid cancer.

Apart from exposing children to the risk of developing cancer,ionizing radiation may result in mental retardation. Deterministiceffects occur when a substantial amount of cells have been damaged asa result of exposure to radiation. This alters the structures and thefunction of tissues (World Health Organization). Fetal exposure toionizing radiation has been associated with a reduced headcircumference that is more pronounced in children between 8-15 weeks.According to the World Health Organization, the central nervoussystems develops rapidly during the first three years of a person’slife hence exposure to radiation during this period may havedevastating effects on a child`s developing brain. Particularly, thecomputed tomography should be avoided since it exposes a child`s headto high amounts of ionizing radiations.

In conclusion, radiation is one of the most commonly usedtechnologies in the diagnosis and treatment of the various diseasesaffecting human beings. However, the use of X-rays and computedtomography has raised health concerns among scholars, especially inthe treatment of children. On this note, preliminary studies haveshown that less frequent exposure to radiation do not have effects ona child’s health. However, children who are exposed to radiationsfor a long period, particularly through the CT scans are at higherrisk of developing certain complications such as the different typesof cancer. Children are the worst hit by exposure to radiation due totheir high cell division, which exposes their DNA to mutation.Besides, children have many years to live compared to adults hencechanges in their genetic cells as a result of exposure to radiationmay be transferred to their offspring. Consequently, doctors need tobe careful where recommending or performing X-rays and CT scans onchildren.

Work Cited

Pearce, MarkS., et al. &quotRadiation exposure from CT scans in childhood andsubsequent risk of leukemia and brain tumors: a retrospective cohortstudy.&quot&nbspTheLancet&nbsp380.9840(2012): 499-505.

Shah, NikhilBharat, and Shari L. Platt. &quotALARA: is there a cause for alarm?Reducing radiation risks from computed tomography scanning inchildren.&quotCurrentopinion in Pediatrics&nbsp20.3(2002): 243-247.

World HealthOrganization. “Children and radiation: children health andradiation.” World Health Organization, 2011. Web. Accessed onOctober 14, 2016.

Instructor`s Name

  • Uncategorized


Amongthe many different professions in the world, being a nurse is one ofthe most selfless professions. It is sometimes referred to as acalling. This is because being a nurse entails more than simply goingto work every day and coming back home at the end of the day. My AuntDiana is a practicing nurse and over the years, I have managed toobserve a few attributes that she has in her profession. Nursingrequires one to be empathetic, caring and strict with the patient atthe same time. A profession is centered on providing healthcareservices to others so that they can live better and more fulfillinglives.

Ihave learnt that Aunt Diana has various functions as a nurse. Herfirst major role as a nurse is being a caregiver. Patients havedifferent needs, some of which require more attention than others.While some patients require help in doing everything full time,others do not have severe cases and may not require much attention.Aunt Diana identifies when a patient requires wholesome care and whena patient does not require as much attention. She cannot afford to bebiased when dealing with a patient. She has to look at the health oftheir patients are determine the patients who need urgent help, thosewho require constant care and those who only require medication andcan manage on their own. Once when I was feeling unwell and went tothe practice she works in, she gave me no special favors. I had to betested like the rest of the people in line and wait for my turn, asmy illness was not severe.

AuntDiana is also responsible for communicating with the patient, theirfamily as well as their physician. This is because as a nurse, sheoften spends more time with the patient. She is in a better positionto understand the severity of the condition of the patient and theprogress that they have been making. Having learned their patientwell, the nurse will be able to relay any information regarding thehealth of the patient and what they may need once they get back athome. Families may sometimes not know how to handle information abouttheir loved one being in a severe condition. For this reason, nurseshave to gently but professionally inform them of any bad or good newsas well as give them hope where possible.

Oneof the major qualities of a nurse is patience and empathy. Differentpatients have different ways of expressing themselves. Some are rude,others are in too much pain to clearly utter words to express howthey feel while others may not even be sure about how they feel. Ihave witnessed Aunt Diana try to be patient and understand where apatient is coming from. The patient needs to feel safe with theindividual taking care of them. For this reason, the nurse has topractice patience and empathy to a certain degree. As much as empathyis important, there are situations in which a nurse has to do what isnecessary in order to help the patient get better. For instance, Ionce had a dislocated shoulder. Aunt Diana had to pull it, which wasexcruciatingly painful for me. I remember her telling me not toworry. Despite the pain, pulling the arm helped relocate my shoulderbefore placing a sling.

Anotherattribute of Aunt Diana is that she is a decision maker in her placeof work. Nursing is not just about following instructions but alsoinvolves making crucial decisions when the need arises. It is theresponsibility of the nurse to make a decision regarding whichpatient needs urgent help that the others. It is also herresponsibility as the nurse to make decisions regarding which problemtheir patient is going through and what tests will be helpful indetecting a particular problem. The lives of the patients are in thehands of all caregivers including the nurses. Therefore, everydecision made has to be focused on ensuring that the health of thepatient is improved. The nurse has to determine which intervention toimplement for certain problems.

Moreimportantly, Aunt Diana is a patient advocate, which is one of themost important jobs of the nurse. The nurse has the responsibility ofstanding up for the rights of the patient where needs are. She hashad to make decisions regarding patients who had no one else to makethem on their behalf. For this reason, nurses are held with highregard, as they are responsible for understanding the needs of thepatients(Brunetto, Yvonne, Rod and Kate 13).More to this, Aunt Diana is also tasked with respecting the rights ofthe patient and fulfilling what the patients ask for. For example, apatient who had a terminal illness was in crucial pain. The patientasked that my aunt end their life. For most people, this might bedifficult. However, a nurse has to be professional and respect thewishes of the patient. It was not an easy thing for Aunt Diana to dobut she had to respect the rights and wishes of her patient.

Inconclusion, the nursing profession is demanding, stressful andchallenging. However, Aunt Diana tells me that being a nurse can alsobe very rewarding when one sees that their patient has gotten better.There are times when patients thank the nurses for all their help andremain forever grateful to them. This is because the nurses have tomake many sacrifices in order to ensure that they improve the healthof their patients. A profession requires long shifts and letting goof patients after they have passed on despite all efforts put intrying to save their lives. Aunt Diana views being a nurse as achance to be selfless and help people get better. My aunt is acommunicator, patient advocate, decision maker all of which have tobe done with great patience and empathy in her nursing profession.


Brunetto,Yvonne, Rod Farr-Wharton, and Kate Shacklock. &quotCommunication,training, well-being, and commitment across nursegenerations.&quot&nbspNursingOutlook&nbsp60.1(2012): 7-15.

Instructor`s name

  • Uncategorized


WaterPollution in Peru

Accordingto factual findings, the European Invasion of Peru brought diseasesto the Inca population that the Inca community did not have immunityto defend itself. As a result of the European invasion on Peru, thepopulation was almost wiped out by foreign diseases. Immediatelyafter independence the country focused on ensuring that healthservices were accessible to every citizen of Peru. In thepre-independence period, there were major discrepancies between theaffluent in the society and those unfortunate Peruvians who lived inreduced circumstances.

Thepost-colonial government aimed at providing health services andinsurance services to the Peruvians who live deep within theterritory of Peru. The government also embarked on developmentalactivities such as mining. The events caused detrimental impacts onthe water sources and contributed to the scarcity of clean, safewater. Water pollution has posed significant threats to the health ofthe Peruvians. As such, this paper will dwell on water pollution inPeru. The article will discuss the causes of water pollution, effectsof the practice, and the actions taken to combat the activity. Itwill dwell on both individual and government actions that can be usedto fight the practice [CITATION Luc12 p 86 l 1033 ].

Causesof Water Pollution in Peru

Peruis bound to face significant challenges on water quality in thecoming years. Peruvians will be compounded by severe water shortagesas unaddressed issues that are chronic as well as environmentalchanges combine to destabilize water security systems. Among theseverest issue is the public water structure that does not sustain orrather serves ineffectively, thousands of poor Peruvians. Most ofthem are either partially or entirely cut off from a consistentsupply of the public water. They are hence forced to rely on costlyretail water vendors within the urban regions with progressivelypolluted streams and rivers in the rural parts. The major cause ofpollution has been attributed to mining [CITATION Jac15 p 67 l 1033 ].

Theextension of mineral extraction has accelerated in the Andes.According to experts, more than 50 percent of Peru’s farmingcommunities are impacted by the mining activities. Though there isoptimism mining has considerable economic advantages, theenvironmental costs are even higher. There are growing fears forwater quality and quantity amongst the residents. These fears haveemanated to violent conflicts between the communities and the miner.

Asone of the most water-stressed nations in South America, Peru relieson insufficient water sources. Water moving from the Andean highlandsis utilized as the water tower supporting the attendant agriculturalpractices and downstream population. The water serves the dynamicagricultural economy of the country. According to the Tyndall Centrefor Climate Change Research, Peru is the 3rd most susceptible countryto the effects of climate change [ CITATION Kat14 l 1033 ].

Miningconcessions are situated in headwater regions thus affecting waterquality. Even though approximations indicate mining utilizes onlyfive percent of the water, the fact that the concessions are situatedin the headwater regions is a concern. The effects of mining onenvironmental health and water quality originate mainly from the AcidMine Drainage (AMD).

Thisoccurs when the rocks are broken down in the mining act to access theore. They are then deposited in other parts within the mining site.The rock’s surface area are exposed to water and air thusincreasing the chemical responses. These contaminants are thenreleased to the environment. Water quality is thus affected in theprocess. A good example can be drawn from the 2008 state of emergencydeclared in Lima. There was impending fears of the release ofcadmium, arsenic, and lead into the water supplies [CITATION Bea15 p 34 l 1033 ].

Effectsof water pollution on people of Peru

Peru,as known, is the most water-stressed country in South America and hasbeen hit by mass protest against many mining companies which areviewed as a reason behind massive water pollution. Since the countrymainly relies on mining of natural resources, the effect has seenwidespread contamination of the environment. Water pollution is soprime since most of the chemical emission to the atmosphere oftenfind their way back to the water catchment areas.

Dueto the mining activities in the country, the quantity and quality ofwater available for use by the citizens of Peru has been affected.Regardless of the promises made by most mining companies on theutilization of the most recent scientific methods and technologies tobe used in the extraction process, results have proved otherwisesince the practices do not exhibit environmental friendliness [CITATION Ald14 p 63 l 1033 ].

Dueto the massive pollution, Peruvians have been seen to protest againstboth local and foreign investors who are willing to commitsubstantial funds towards mining projects. Despite the economicbenefits that would result from the massive investments, suchinvestments often come at a cost since they further pollute theenvironment. With lead emissions being the most common source ofpollution, water consumed by the citizens of Peru is widelycontaminated and often has side effects against its users.

Minesoften dump waste rocks and heaps of leach pads which often result inthe reduction of recharge of a high quantity of ground water. Mineshave also been blamed for releasing misleading reports regardingtheir proposed drainage basins when they become fully operational.Such incorrect information is released to blindfold the communityinto believing that the mines are in control of the resulting impacton the environment. These misleading information when uncovered oftenresult in conflicts between the mining companies and communityaffected [CITATION Mee10 p 65 l 1033 ].

Theresulting conflict at times has escalated to the levels of violencebetween the protesting communities and the miners. At times,government forces had to confront communities who were armed withspears, bows, and arrows. Given the level of water pollution in thecountry, the importance of water has been changed from just being abasic necessity to a means of showing and measuring the economic andsocial status of the residents in different regions. Pollution haspromoted climate change [ CITATION Luc12 l 1033 ].

Withthe high level of contamination in Peru, it has had a huge impacttowards the availability of water for use. Access to water has beenwidely affected due to water pollution making clean water for use ascarce natural resource. As such, water pollution has exposed thepoor to the lack of water for use in their daily routines. Forexample, in December 1994, some forest dwellers of Peruvian originsued Texaco Inc. for allegedly spoiling their environment.

Thecompany is believed to have been dumping harmful waste materials intovarious rivers which flow to Peru from Ecuador. The company was suedfor $1 billion after they had been thought to have designed 400 oilwells in Ecuador while knowing that Peru would get millions ofgallons of the oil. The rate of protests against mining companies inPeru has been a common phenomenon given the companies are pathways topotential large-scale lethal water pollution due to the intenselevels of the industrial activities [ CITATION Pro121 l 1033 ].

Additionalpressure has been put on the water capacities for comfortable use bythe Peruvians by the ever-expanding mining industry. Since most minesare located along water areas, the mining activities do affect waterquality and also impacts on the quantity available for supply to themany users. Given that the country also relies on its massive exportof agricultural products, water pollution has significantly reducedthe amount and quality of their farm products aimed for export. Thisnegatively affects the economic development of the country due to asignificant reduction of their exports. As a result, Peru has beenlisted to be among those countries that are most vulnerable toclimate change [ CITATION Sal11 l 1033 ].

Accordingto Bebbington (2008), mines in Peru emit effluents of about 13billion m3 into the sources of water for the country. This hasresulted in the creation of community groups and non-governmentalinstitutions whose main aim is to advocate against licensing of newmines with the goal of protecting citizens from polluted water andacting as watchdogs against environmental pollution. Moreover, therehas been a rapid growth in the population of Peru. With the rapidpopulation increase, it has resulted in additional stress to thesources of water which have been greatly polluted.

Unplannedinformal settlements have been put up to accommodate the growinginflux of the population. Such informal settlements often lackadequate amenities such as clean water, waste management services,poor drainage systems and often practice poor farming techniques.These settlements during rainy season cause run-offs which containwaste products especially toxic chemicals and pathogens released bypoorly maintained septic tanks which affect the surface water and theenvironment at large. The water pollution often is a cause ofwaterborne diseases while also affecting agricultural produce [CITATION Kei14 p 34 l 1033 ].

Waysof Mitigating Water Pollution in Peru

Dueto the large detrimental impacts affecting water quality, thegovernment of Peru and other global entities have embarked on severalprojects to mitigate the issue. For instance, the World Bankincreased water supply in Lima, instituting three carbon offsetprojects and policies to strengthen water quality standards. Thegovernment of Peru also instituted National Environmental System Lawthat seeks to conserve the environment and water quality.

Thelack of a national authority to govern environmental activities mayhave contributed to the severe damages. Nevertheless, the governmentconstituted a docket to handle environmental matters thus reducingthe illegal or rather inhuman practices that were injurious to thewater and air quality. The Cleaning Development Mechanism (CDM) wasalso started to limit the amount of emissions a company could make.The CDM projects included rural electrification utilizing solar panelor energy-efficient boilers. The mechanism stimulated emissionreductions as well as sustainable development [CITATION Wil11 p 49 l 1033 ].

Theexpansion of water and wastewater treatment is another mechanism ofimproving water quality. Since the water quality was already poor,newer high-tech technologies of preserving the ecosystem needed to beerected. In other words, water treatment facilities were built topurify the amenity and make it safe for use. As such, the Peruvianshad to be taught on the means of improving and managing clean waterbefore consumption. Some of the projects instigated to curb waterpollution have been successful. For example, the CDM project. TheHuaycoloro Landfill Gas Recovery proved to be a success. The planconstituted of capturing solid wastes produced by methane andconverting it to gas. The gas is then sold to the global carbonmarket [CITATION Ald14 p 43 l 1033 ].

Themost important water users, that is, the rural communities have notbeen incorporated in the decision-making process. Management has beenleft solely to the government and a handful of influential privatewater users. Therefore, improving the water quality ought toincorporate these communities since they form the majority of thewater users. However, in recent times, the novel water law hasinstigated a collaborative approach to enrich the water catchmentareas. This law unites all the relevant groups i.e. agricultural,industrial, and domestic water users including the rural communities.Galvanized by Aquafondo, a privately owned/NGO agency, the law hasmanaged to heighten collaborations in a means to improve the waterquality [ CITATION Luc12 l 1033 ].


Wateris an essential commodity and is utilized for various purposes. Anycontaminations to the water bodies pose significant threats to thepopulace, especially regarding diseases. Peru being one of the mostaffected countries has vast amounts of its water contaminated. Asdiscussed above, mining is the primary cause of contamination. Thoughthe country champions the development, it has come with thedetrimental impact of poor water quality. As a matter of fact, Peru’swater quality has been spotted by the global agencies. The continuouseffects of climate change as hurt the country’s water accessibilityto heightened level. However, the government had to embark onactivities like stringent laws to sustain the available water andprevent pollution. It is clear the responsibility of sustaining andcleaning the waters lies with the relevant authorities andagricultural, domestic, and industrial water users including therural communities.


Jackson, S., and Barber, M. &quotecognizing Indigenous Water Cultures and Rights in Mine Water Management: The Role of Negotiated Agreements. Aquatic Procedia 5.&quot (2015): 81-89. Online Publication.

Jenkins, Katy. &quotWomen, mining and development: An emerging research agenda. The Extractive Industries and Society 1:2,&quot (2014): 329-339. Document.

Martínez-Alier, Beatriz Rodríguez-Labajos, and Joan. &quotPolitical ecology of water conflicts. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water.&quot (2015): 537. Document.

McClintock., Aldo F. Ponce and Cynthia. &quothe Explosive Combination of Inefficient Local Bureaucracies and Mining Production: Evidence from Localized Societal Protests in Peru. Latin American Politics and Society.&quot (2014): 118-140. Document.

Meena Palaniappan, Lucy Allen, and Courtney Smith. &quotClearing the Waters: A Focus on water quality solutions.&quot (2010): 1-91. Online publication.

Nathali, Lucila. &quotFacing New Challenges: Environment Policies and the Implementation of Solutions in Peru.&quot (2012): 1-7. Document.

Progressio75. &quotPeru: How to involve people in water management.&quot 2012. Document. 12 October 2016.

Salvemini, Andres Liebenthal and Diana. &quotPromoting Environment Sustainability in Peru: A Review of the World Bank Group`s Experience.&quot (2011): 1-44. Document.

Slack., Keith. &quotMapping the bigger picture: Using mapping to promote better development outcomes from extractive industries.&quot (2014): 237. Document.

Williams, Anthony Bebbington, and Mark. &quotMountain Research and Development.&quot Report. 2011. Document.

Instructor`s name

  • Uncategorized


InclusiveEducation of Children with Special Needs

Thetopic of children with disabilities has been a global concern formany years. As per a 2010 report by the EFA Global Monitoring, thestudents with disabilities remain the most marginalized groupregarding the quality of education. Though disability is less visibleconcerning education marginalization, it is one of the most potentfactors. The children remain part of the community even with thelimited quality of education. To improve the education of studentswith special needs, three mechanisms are normally used i.e.segregation, integration, and inclusion. The method to be utilized isquite sensitive since different circumstances require differentapproaches. As such some work well with separation, while othersprefer integration. Nevertheless, inclusion is the best method tohandle children with disabilities. Therefore, this paper willhighlight the importance of the inclusive approach in the educationsector and its benefits to the students with special needs.

Thelack of know-how with regards to access to education and technologypreviously resulted in the segregation of disabled children. Suchchildren were treated contrary to the others hence viewed asunwanted. Children with disabilities were taken to differenteducational institutions termed as special schools. However, with theenlightenment in the society today, children having special needs areviewed to be having rights to education as other normal children [CITATION For13 p 39 l 1033 ].With the promotion of the right to education with regards to childrenwith special needs, the aspect of inclusive education has beenintroduced whose primary aim is to address educational needsconcerning the children having special needs. Inclusive educationpromotes the creation of opportunities for all children to learn andparticipate irrespective of their physical or mental abilities. Therehas been a notable shift whereby children with disabilities areencouraged to attend institutions together with those who are notdisabled [CITATION Car141 p 48 l 1033 ].

Educationistscurrently are of the idea that all children should learn in theirway. The idea is to require that all schools should meet educationalneeds of all children regardless of the limitations or disabilities.The provision for inclusive education requires that schools promotingthe policy recognize and effectively cater for the diverse needsregarding their students. Inclusive institutions should accommodatethe various styles of learning that will ensure quality education isbeing offered to all individuals. Appropriate resources and teachingmethods are supposed to be implemented for quality and efficientlearning. With inclusive education, child participation and learningare promoted by the community and parents whereby plans andimplementation of the recommended services for both the normal andchildren with limitation are carried out [CITATION Placeholder10 l 1033 ].

Inclusiveeducation insists that learners are not the same. Therefore,inclusive schools are supposed to focus on the creation ofopportunities for all students in different ways. The teachersinvolved with inclusive schools need to have different learningmodalities when determining their methods of instructions. Thesemodalities often enhance ways through which the educators supportwhile accommodating students with limitations. Despite the increasedpromotion towards inclusive education, some educational institutionshave not yet adapted to the idea and are unconvinced in letting thespecial children and the normal children learn together. Someinstitutions do not allow for the admission of the special schools.The challenge facing inclusive education is the inflexibility of theeducational curriculum, the inability of the children to defendthemselves from possible bullying from other students. Children withspecial needs always require substantial attention from theirteachers and guardians to maneuver on the day to day activities.Inclusive educational institutions are expected to provideappropriate academic support systems that provide a conduciveenvironment to all students despite their limitations. Effectivelearning environments often help the disabled students to adapt andshow their gifts and talents [CITATION Tea13 l 1033 ].

Inan inclusive approach, the children with disability are allowed tointeract with the others. Therefore, they feel more socially includedand less marginalized. Such feelings eradicate stigmatization to thebenefit of the children. The teachers are mandated to establish thedifferent needs and once obtained, necessary facilities are availed.They give the children a wider access to the curriculum. Theinclusive technique can be attained if the children with disabilitiesare governed within the education ministry. In many countries, thecurriculum for the children with disabilities is placed under adifferent authority. Placing the docket under a different authorityonly heightens the gap between the children. Therefore, with theprogram under the same authority, educators will be required to havespecial skills to handle the diverse students. Since the authority isresponsible for the allocation of teachers, it will be easier to knowthe areas in need of special skills [CITATION Uni11 p 75 l 1033 ].

Aselaborated above, the inclusive approach determines the differentrequirements of the children. By establishing the needs, it is mucheasier to allocate the educators according to their most preferredskills. In general, the inclusive method ensures:

  • Higher accomplishments for children

  • Schools react to individual differences thereby benefiting every child

  • Lessening of the social welfare expenses and future dependency


Asearlier stated, the type of method used can vary depending on thecircumstances. However, they all have detrimental impacts whicheducators must learn how to manage. Even with the varying impacts,the inclusive approach seems to be the best since the students withspecial needs feel accommodated within the society.


Carol M. Connor, Paul A. Alberto, Donald L. Compton, and Rollanda E. O’Connor. &quotImproving Reading Outcomes for Students with or at Risk for Reading Disabilities.&quot (2014): 1-108.

Donnell, Verity. &quotTeacher Education for Inclusion.&quot Journal of International Education for Special Needs (2013): 1-70.

Ford, Jeremy. &quotEducating Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms.&quot Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education (2013): 1-21.

UKaid. &quotEducation for Children with Disabilities – improving access and quality.&quot (2012): 1-22.

Unicef. &quotThe Right of Children with Disabilities to Education: A rights-Based Approach to Inclusive Education in the CEECIS Region.&quot (2011): 1-24.

Instructor`s name

  • Uncategorized


Sonny’sBlues by Baldwin

Sonny’sBlues is a short story of a young jazz musician who was arrested andlater released for heroin addiction. Sonny, the young musician, triesto reconnect with his brother after years of tense relations. The twocould not relate well, mainly due to drug issues, music, and familyamong other life struggles. The narrator further recalls how Sonnyand their father used to have arguments that resulted in fights. Whentheir mother passed on, the two were having a conversation when Sonnyexpressed his desire to be a jazz musician, a dream the narratordismissed. Sonny had the passion for music and practiced a lot thoughthe rest of the family did not like it. As such, this paper willanalyze the different literary devices used in the short story. Theauthor incorporated symbolism, imagery, and allegory to trace Sonny`spassion for music. Apart from that, it will dwell on the setting,genre, and writing style. The paper will conclusively illustrate howSonny was able to influence the narrator. Towards the end, thenarrator was able to comprehend Sonny’s love for jazz music.

Symbolism,Imagery, and Allegory

Inthis tale, Jazz music represents various things linked to differentcharacters. The narrator knows nothing about jazz and only links itwith particular people that he does not want Sonny to relate. Heblamed jazz for Sonny`s drug addiction. The jazz lifestyle had turnedhis brother into a heroin addict. From what he knew, musicians mustbe high to play the music (Baldwin 54). In that case, jazz made thespeaker angry and bitter. However, for Sonny, jazz music representeda ray of light. He loved everything about jazz, that is, playing andlistening. According to him, it was the only positive thing in hisdrug-addicted life. The people his brother thought were detrimentalto his life are like a second family to Sonny. While the music wasforeign to the narrator, it provided comfort to Sonny. Towards theend of the story, jazz music operates as a bridge between thenarrator and Sonny. When he goes to watch his brother play, thenarrator learns more about him and realizes he never knew him wellenough [CITATION Bal p 97 l 1033 ].

Theice images appear at many points within the tale. It symbolizeddread, a feeling of shock, and fear. For instance, while the narratorwas expressing shock of learning about Sonny’s arrest, he describedit as a block of ice settling in the belly. He could not avoid theicy feeling when Sonny gets out of jail. Usually, ice and cold areviewed to cause discomfort, and as exemplified in this tale, it seemsto be figurative. Light, on the other hand, appears in various formslike spotlight or moonlight. In other times the absence of lightsymbolized a certain aspect. As such, light illuminates bothfiguratively and literally. While in the club, the narratorexperiences some revelation about Sonny as a spotlight on him turnsblue. Moreover, in the final scene as Sonny places milk and scotch onthe piano, it “glowed” typifying the glowing light in his music[ CITATION Bal l 1033 ].


Thestory takes place in Harlem in the early 1950s and plays asignificant function. Sonny resorts to drugs to hide from thesurroundings. People were entangled in poverty as prostitutes weremishandled along the streets and young men had limitedresponsibilities. As such, Sonny wanted to escape from thesesurroundings and found solace in drugs. As the narrator feels, whiletaking Sonny out of jail, he was placing him on the imminent dangerthe streets of Harlem caused. It was in this place where Sonny almostlost his life. Nevertheless, within Harlem, there was a less menacingplace, that is, the nightclub where Sonny used as a refuge. In thissetting, Sonny utilized it to escape from the surrounding evils suchas drug addiction. The club was a small place, shining light withindark surroundings that were a part of Sonny’s life [CITATION Bal p 57 l 1033 ].


Thestory typifies literal fiction. The characters, drugs, music andfamily conflict propel the story in “Sonny’s Blues.” All theseaspects contribute to the development of fleshed-out characters. Thepsychological depth created by the author expresses the inner turmoilsurrounding the characters thereby propelling the plot. Though Sonnyis arrested for taking drugs, it appears to be secondary to the causeof doing it. Though the narrator sends Sonny a drink to portray akind gesture, it only suggests that he had a new comprehension abouthis brother. Though it is evident many things happen throughout thestory, the events are only characterization tools hence the notionthis work is literary fiction [CITATION Bal p 56 l 1033 ].


Thenarrative is poetic regarding the lyrical and beautiful writing. Thesentences are musically placed to describe the different aspects. Forinstance, in one case the narrator states, “the singing filled theair, the listening, watching faces went through a change, eyesfocused within, it seems the music was soothing out poison…” Thenarrative is also centered on music as the core theme. This writingrightly illustrates how plot and technique can be fused to develop anarrative [ CITATION Bal l 1033 ].


Jazzmusic, in this case, reconnects the two brothers. The author utilizessome literary elements to demonstrate the power of music. At theclose of the story, the narrator realizes the real Sonny. Sonny canexpress himself in music, the struggles, and past experiences.Through jazz music, Sonny expressed his past experiences andstruggles throughout his life. It is through this presentation thatthe narrator can recognize the real Sonny.


Baldwin, James. &quotSonny`s Blues.&quot 1965. Sonny`s Blues. Document. 12 October 2016.

Instructor`s name

  • Uncategorized


TheWay the Pharmaceutical Industry Develops Drugs

Oneof the most significant activities that have the greatest impacts inthe market is drug development. Pharmaceutical companies all over theworld take part in this particular process. Drug development is thusdefined as the course of introducing new pharmaceutical drugs to thepopulation. This activity usually occurs when a lead compound hasbeen discovered. Some guidelines have been laid to govern theproduction that includes pre-clinical research, clinical trials onhumans and the final approval for marketing and use. In summary, thefirst step involves the testing on microorganisms and animals.Afterward, the companies then apply for regulation by the relevantbody such as the Food and Drug Administration that takes part ininvestigation and initiation of human trials. Finally, the success ofthe preceding stages is finalized by approval to market the drug.Despite this seemingly honest and straightforward process, severalindividuals and organizations have come up with specific criticismsregarding the malpractices and operations that can otherwise bedeemed as lacking integrity [ CITATION Mar04 l 1033 ].This paper takes an in-depth look at how the pharmaceutical companiesdevelop and market drugs as well as the disapprovals that accompanythem and the regulatory bodies.

DrugDevelopment and Approval

Everysingle day, researchers and scientists work to discover and developnew and more efficient substances for the broad range of healthconditions that exist. Through this route, new chemical entitiesemerge which are shown to have more activity against variousdiseases. Since little is known concerning the drug, all theparameters of the compound including metabolism, dosage, toxicity,schedule, safety and pharmacokinetic aspects must be assessed.Manufacturers, therefore, engage in the activities of making thechemical from subtle quantities to larger ones while at the same timeestablishing the best mode of delivery such as capsules, tablets,injections or solutions. This stage is commonly known as theChemistry, Manufacturing, and Control. The information obtained issubmitted to the relevant regulatory bodies such as the Food and DrugAdministration whereby approval of the chemical warrants theprogression to the clinical stage.

Theclinical phase is performed in steps that involve healthyindividuals, a small number of patients, and scores of patients inthat order respectively. After the human trials, the final reportindicates the toxicity, safety, and desired effects. The evidence ofthe success is presented so that the marketing approval can be donein the countries where the companies want to sell. Most of the timethe new drugs tend to fail the development stage due to unacceptablelevels of toxicity or for failure to achieve their intended effectson the specific diseases.

Costand Market Value

Thecost of introducing newly approved drugs to the existing marketinvolves a complex series of events that usually turn out to behighly controversial. These pharmaceutical companies spend millionsof dollars in the trials, and the situation is further complicated bythe confidential release of cost information. These pharmaceuticalindustries use controversial statements to justify their set prices.This is where the critiques begin to arise. The high attrition ratesmake a valuation of drug development projects a hard task. Thesuccess rate of new drugs are usually minuscule, and the intertwinedprocesses involved are indicated to offer room for mischief both bythe companies and the approval organizations. There is a generalassumption by the population that the regulation authorities wouldnot take part in the adoption of a dangerous compound.

However,there have been cases where approved drugs led to the development ofsafety issues among patients who use them to the extent in which theyhad to be completely withdrawn from the market. Several authors haveexplicitly stated that there was a time in history when the FDA wouldnot approve drugs that caused or had the potential to trigger harmfuleffects. However, there seems to be a growing compromise especiallywith the approval of drugs such as Paxil, Cylert, and Ketek amongothers. Some critics have gone even further to accuse themanufacturers of liaising with the FDA to reject certain drugs whileaccepting others. The compromise is termed as serving Wall Streetrather than the Public. There are instances where the regulatorybodies reject the recommendations forwarded by the advisorycommittee. Seemingly, money seems to be the defining factor as moreand more big pharmaceutical companies make billions of dollars sincethey are not threatened by possibilities of generic competition bydeveloping drugs based on monoclonal antibody technology. Thishappens without a proper follow-up on the safety and risk assessmentreports. The author of an individual article writes “Yet, as theirlabels attest, the famous LABA drugs are far from safe”[ CITATION Mar156 l 1033 ].

Ontop of that, the drug manufacturing companies fund renowned doctorswho market the product by recommending them to their patients. Asthmais a disease that has seen such a phenomenon. Labels on asthmamedications indicate that the drugs are not entirely safe. Theproblem is rooted on the profitability of making certain drugs withpossible conflicts of interest in the approval process. According toMartha Rosenberg, “Clearly Califf`s nomination and expectedconfirmation as FDA Commissioner has solved the problem ofundisclosed conflicts of interest. They are right out in the open.”[ CITATION Mar156 l 1033 ]

TheFood and Drug administration is not alone in the malpractices, bias,and conflict of interest accusations. The healthcare system hasbecome clouded with a market ideology. It has become a system “basedon the premise that health care is a commodity like VCRs or computersand that it should be distributed according to the ability to pay inthe same way that consumer goods are.” Instead of becoming moreinnovative, these corporates have now focused their energies onprofit making. The pharmaceuticals have embarked on a “marketingmachine to sell drugs of dubious benefit. This industry uses itswealth and power to co-opt every institution that might stand in itsway, including the US Congress, the FDA, academic medical centers,and the medical profession itself” [ CITATION Mar04 l 1033 ].Thiseffect is partially achieved through the influence of doctors whoprescribed the advocated medicines.

Otherwriters provide a shocking illustration of companies that use theirpower, influence, and financial resources to create a fear factor topeople about new diseases and disorders that are dangerous yettreatable. For instance, there was a time the public was stunned bythe introduction of Generalized Anxiety Disorder with data suggesting10 million affected. Spontaneously, the FDA approved a drugspecifically developed for the disease. As such, there is a tendencyof some well-established firms to “develop strategies forpathologizing and marketing disorders which in turn results inenormous increases in the sales of whichever specialty drug is beingpresented to combat these new illnesses” [ CITATION Koe02 l 1033 ].

Inother sources of information, there is a strong connection betweenpharmaceutical research and manufacturers, lobbying groups and theCongress. At times, efforts to bring order to the manufacturing anddrug marketing process have been met with strong repulsion fromgroups that are benefitting from the activities. A comparison ofvarious countries health system indicates that while some statesoffer free and subsidized drugs for the young, aged and unemployed,others deny essential services to those who need it [ CITATION Mic07 l 1033 ].


Angell, Marcia. The Truth About the Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What to Do About It. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2004. Print.

Koerner, Brendan I. &quotDisorders made to order.&quot Mother Jones August 2002: 58. Document.

Rosenberg, Martha. &quotAre You Taking These New Drugs From Our Brave New FDA?&quot 12 December 2015. OpedNews. Document. 11 October 2016.

Sicko. Dir. Michael Francis Moore. Perf. Michael Francis Moore. 2007. DVD.

Instructor`s name

  • Uncategorized

Propaganda about World War II

Schindler’sList graphically portrays the horrific acts of Germanconcentration camps in the World War II. In addition to this, Byrne(251), notes that the Russian troops were described as killers anddehumanizing beasts who attacked their opponents without the fear ofcausing death. A battle is something that has existed in many nationsand the public always turns to the media for facts about the progressof the encounter. Most Americans depend solely on the news broadcaston statistics and opinion surveys to know who is winning the battleand who is losing. However, despite the trust that people put onmedia, some journalists present the news with bias thus giving falseinformation to the public. Once the biased news is out, other mediahouses may pick up the information regarding the war andintentionally present it to the public with the sole intent ofskewing their perceptions. If this pest “propaganda” to bestopped, it will only call for procedures that first modify the trustensured in the media broadcast, including reforms from thejournalists who present bias news to the public.

Propaganda, as per many authors, refers to the allegations or ideasthat are spread deliberately with the intention of damaging theopponents. In the course of the World War II (1939-1945), propagandakept the battles heated as each nation sought to overcome the otherthrough the news provided via media platforms. America not only usedpropaganda to spread hate attitudes on other opposing countries likeGermany but also used the idea to promote views such as nationalisticviews among Americans. Theaters worked together with the country atlarge to convince the community to offer assistance in conquering thewar. One close analysis shows that the attached World War IIpropaganda poster that titled This is the Enemy, pread widelyin the United States of America.

Thisimage represents a smash between two nations at war and demonstratesthe prejudiced discernments that industrialized as a result.

Also, one of themost popularized widely publicized reason offered in Americanopposition to the regime of the Adolf Hitler was its strict policydirected at Jews and other enemies of the government. Due to somecurious irony, the majority of the same Americans were so quick inattacking the Nazi racial doctrines were the worst offenders inspreading the abroad fantastic myth of singular German wickedness.Alternatively, ethos provided the credibility to the rhetoric and wasused by Walt Disney in Donald Ducks character to portray thedifference between the life in Germany and the United States duringWorld War II in film od Der Fuehrer’s Face. Consequently, pathoscreated emotional response out of the audience, and it was used todisplay the feeling of hatred, loathing, and dislike for the Nazicommunity because of how they treated their citizens and what kind oflife they put through them.

Overall, the filmsdemonstrated out ultimate results of the Nazi life which makes thequality of life in America seem much improved. The video was used aspropaganda to attack the Nazi society and defend the American way oflife. In a nutshell, the complete situation of World War II and theHolocaust gave rise to the need of encouragement because peoplelooked-for to be prompted of the terrible acts against humankind thatwas disseminated by Germany.

Finally, the visualrhetoric techniques make use of appeal of pathos, which is a form apersuasion appealing to individual’s emotion, rather than rationalmind. Looking at the poster, this is the Enemy, feelings of the dreadand fear conveyed to the viewer. This can also be described as astrong desire to help the child in the center, and loathing felttowards the enemy. One fact that conveys emotions is the colorscheme. In this case, the black and white image expresses a sense ofnegativity and the despair because there are not bright colorsfrequently illustrate happy moods. The quote emphasizes a sense ofdesperation and also act as a call to the arms of the Americanpopulation to rise and fight their enemies. The use of the young girlis also a sense of innocence and purity that, in the context of theimage it is a danger of being corrupted by the Nazi regime. Overall,it can be deduced that the enemy is wrong and therefore, theAmericans are in the right to fight their enemies.

Overly, both Americaand Germany consider having accomplished the objectives they had inthe use of propaganda during World War II. Despite painting a badimage of the Jewish community, Germany also established a strongsense of nationalism among its citizens. However, even though theymanaged to build a relatively strong defense force to help them inthe course of the war, they were not capable of beating theAmericans. As a result of propaganda, Americans elevated the level ofproduction in their nation so that their army had an adequate supplyin the progression of the war. Additionally, American citizensacquired jobs in the productions sites (Cozma 2015, 433). In theend, America won the war which means their propaganda attempts wereoperative. Propaganda played a great role in the World War IIespecially for Germany and America and it is regarded as the mostpowerful tool that they could ever have used.

Work cited:

Byrne, Alice. &quotThe British Council and cultural propaganda inthe United States, 1938–1945.&quot Journal of TransatlanticStudies 11.3 (2013): 249-263.

Cozma, Raluca. &quotWERE THE MURROW BOYS WARMONGERS? Therelationship between sourcing, framing, and propaganda in warjournalism.&quot Journalism Studies 16.3 (2015): 433-448.

Close Menu