Introspectionin Decision Making
Introspectionin Decision Making
Decisionmaking is the fundamental pillar to the successful running of anyaffair in the society, personal life, and family issues. In decisionmaking, self-reflection or introspection is a critical requirementfor full inquest and analysis of the issue that needs a particularcondition to be created for the set goal to in. Thus, any form ofdecision making requires a clear and undisturbed mind to be able tofocus, analyze and come up with the most economically, socially andpsychologically viable path to the solution of the matter at hand(Ozer Keskin, 2013). A mind that is corrupt also takes anintrospective time to reflect on the theoretical issue and identify araft of feasible solutions, out of which alternatives are drawn usingthe elimination method, and finally a decision is reached on what tobe implemented to mitigate the problem (Leisti & Hakinen, 2016).Ethics is about how people act and behave as dictated by thestandards that adjudge as to whether their actions are right orwrong. This paper shall look into introspection and decision-makingprocess, and how helpful it is to apply moral principle in making anethical outcome.
Inright and ethical decision making and behavior, there are hurdles tojump so as to reach the best of the choices and ultimately the bestdecision among the options. Ethical decision making in most instancesis key in life and death situations and must apply well-formulatedtheoretical process to form an ethical outcome. It is during thatperiod of introspection and decision making that deep thought,emotions and feelings are taken care of and handled for a viable andappropriate decision making. It is important for every decision makerto engage his mind in full moral awareness to overcome the probableproblems that may be encountered shortly emanating from the wrongdecision mad.
Indecision making, the issues presented for final decision to bereached require different options or alternatives of solutions ordecisions, but there should be an in-depth analysis before enteringthe judgment. A right and ethical decision is reached afterunderstanding the moral impact the action has, and therefore, thejudgment concluded should be the most appropriate in making a clearmitigation against the problem of the elephant in the house (Kozuba,2013). It, therefore, takes a sober and a selfless mind to get to theright decision no matter how far from the desire of the decisionmaker it is and however much he may not like it.
Bribery:Giving out cash to influence a decision in one`s favor is corruptingand disgusting even from the mention of it. Bribery has been thesubject of favorable pronouncements for some parties in court cases,inquiries, and arbitrations. Other areas marred with bribery are inassigning brand, traffic cases and much more. Bribery is unethicaland unacceptable in any professional terms and fronts (Atanasov,n.d). Taking a bribe goes against the utilitarian theoristsperspective of the greater good as a country, society and futuregenerations are denied justice to create a world full of anarchy.Theory of virtue ethics requires an individual to act basing onpersonal inward behavior and not laid down laws (Bartels, Bauman,Skitka and Medin, 2009). Majorly, a person who is corrupt lacksmorals. The theory relies on the fact that individuals should ask,what sort of a person am I? The more people practice integrity themore virtuous they become. A decision made under the influence ofcorruption is not morally binding and it creates impunity in thefuture since the one committing a felony understands that after all,he will only part with a few coins and has his way to freedom(Atanasov, n.d). However, any decision maker should set his integritybar high beyond the reach of the corrupt mind, reassure the societyof the confidence they should have in decision makers and make themknow that they are ethical enough to reach a widely accepted decisionthough tough.
Abortion:this is terminating a life before birth time and when it is doneintentionally to kill it is referred to as abortion. In reference tothe decision making, ethical egoism refers to acceptable view point(Leisti and Häkkinen, 2016).Most religions and cultures consider abortion unacceptable since itequates to murder. It is, therefore, good to know that a good andethical decision and behavior regarding abortion is critical as manypeople would want to do it to absolve them of any responsibilitycoming with the pregnancy only to end up being guilty for much oftheir lives (Fry and Johnstone, 2008). Ethical theory dictates thatpeople do not have moral duty apart from doing what is best for them(Bartels, Bauman, Skitka, and Medin, 2009). Therefore, abortion ispermissible when it promotes the long-term benefits of an individual.However, it can satisfy a person in the short-term in the long run,it can be seen as egoistic as it contradicts the normative socialstanding. A doctor should be ethical in deciding whether he shouldconduct the abortion, through understanding legal and professionalconsequences, and the moral implications, all of which should be doneafter the patient makes all the explanations. After all the hearingis done, he should get rid of all feelings and emotions and decideson the matter, even if it means to have time to introspect if itleads to an ethically viable decision.
Torture:Refers to any form of punishment that is beyond any humanity and nosober mind and an ethical decision maker should subject a child or anemployee to such as it kills the sanity in decision making (Cote &Lapierre, 2014). The police routinely use torture to extractinformation from a suspect. Also, in employment, some seniors in afirm tend to take errant employees through severe punishment up toand including indefinite suspensions without pay. Utilitarianapproach, championed by John Stuart Mill, is about consequentialism,hedonism, utility and minimalism (Cushman, 2008). It implies that therelevance of the action can be justified by the greater good.Torturing criminals to get names of accomplices will be consideredpermissible and acceptable as a means of protecting the societyagainst criminals and by extension sparing lives of many. Similarly,laying off an employee for a firm to remain profitable simply meansthat other employees will have a livelihood.
Anethical decision maker takes his time to consider the facts and thecircumstances under which the employee has acted errantly or in anunacceptable way, give him a fair hearing to express himself and thentake a decision that shows justice to both parties (Ozer Keskin,2013). A decision-making organ is meant to grant justice to allwhether that judgment seems unfair to the body or the party as longas it is considerate of all factors surrounding the action. However,torture is illegal and immoral and unacceptable to any society, andthus those that engage in this practice are considered unprofessionaland unethical. Further, any employer who tortures the employee shouldbe denied space to lead any form of a team in any sector as thecommit crimes against humanity.
HumanResource Discrimination: Some nations have values that dictate on whoshould drive the economy or business units (Veel, 2010). Thattransgender bias shows that there are poor decision makers in the HRsectors of the economy. The society has not generally accepted peoplewho transition to a different gender making them vulnerable todiscrimination. Equally problematic is the issue of considering themfor employment. HR departments might feel that their business unitwill be compromised if they include transgendered individuals.Therefore they are in dilemma of making ethical decisions if suchperson turns up for interview. In case such a person is consideredfor employment, he is discriminated against during job promotion.Rawls’s justice ethics, institutions should prioritize justice foran individual as opposed to the mean welfare. Accordingly, decisionmakers should be guided by fairness, impartiality and equity. Inethical decision making, it is important to consider the fact thatshunning such employees will further stigmatize and alienate them.
Decisionmakers should streamline laws that will have all employees enjoy samebenefit and this will lead to wider acceptance of transgenderedindividuals in society. In that case, it is for the human capitaldepartment to reach a decision to remunerate all employees equallyand commensurate to their experience qualifications and performance(Leisti Hakkinen, 2016). Some sectors or organizations discriminatetransgender individuals. That practice should bring decision-makingorgans in employment to their mind and make decisions and formulatepolicies that favor all employees equally. It is therefore importantfor decision makers to entrench sobriety and ethics to decide on thisemotive matter as to whether having such employees will lead to lowbusiness performance. In various countries, transgender are taken tobe outcasts but should be equally treated and should also have equalaccess to employment opportunities just as other citizens and it isunethical and immoral to den then such chances.
LegalEthics: Any accused person is innocent until proven guilty by a courtof law and as prescribed by statute. Further, any defendant has theright to be represented in court by a litigant whether private orpublic (Kozuba, 2013). The purpose of a lawyer is to defend theaccused in the chambers and prove him not guilty. However, there arethose who feel it is not morally upright and ethical for a litigantto defend a criminal as it is felt that if the accused is let off thehook, the blame shifts to the counsel (Cote Lapierre, 2014). Basingon this line of thought, deontological theories set rules basing onone’s profession on making choices that are morally permitted orforbidden (Ditto and Liu, 2011). The society should be shown that itis alright for the litigant to defend the accused as he is innocentuntil proven guilty and deal with the emotions part of the societythat feels unsafe with the emergence of a lawyer in court acting onbehalf of the criminal. It is also important to consider that lawyersare duty bound to defend their clients.
Adecision made should be followed by a clear work plan on how thedecision should be implemented and with clear timelines on what toachieve when to achieve it and what path to follow during theimplementations (Ozer Keskin, 2013). It is said that decision withoutaction is like living without living and as such, any decision thatis kept under the carpet in indeed not useful and a failedinstitution. It should be clear that life begins at conception and ifin a country has a law with a gray area in that regard, it should bemade clear, and reform on the area made. In employment where there isgender-based discrimination, a law should be passed declaring allemployees equal and should be treated as so in all matters, shouldhave equal opportunities and should have equal pay for equal work andsame cadre (Turiel, 2016). On the issue of representation by alitigant in court for an accused criminal, members of the society whoare mainly affected by the actions of the suspect should be trainedthat it is his right to have a litigant on his behalf. He could beprivate or government counsel depending on the severity of thesubject matter (Veel, 2010). The members of the society should knowthat any crime affects the state more than its citizens since it isfor the state to secure its public.
Ethicaldecision making and behavior could only be reached when one takessome time to reflect on the matter at hand deeply. Introspectiontakes away all the emotions and feelings that could shroud a decisionif it was hastily made leading to regrets and being declaredincompetent as a leader and manager of public affairs (Zamzow, 2014).Many leaders have been declared unfit to hold office for makingdecisions that have led to institutions they head suffering losses inmoney form and human capital, which has also dented big brands whichwere once heavy weights in big industries. Economies lose value dueto bad decisions which arise from failing to take the time to reflecton the impact the economy could have if a particular decision werereached. Judges have been declared unfit to continue serving fordeciding on cases without considering some factors citing them asfrivols and flimsy yet they would be instrumental in a betterdecision. Every decision maker should be alive to the fact that theyare all under watch and any decision arrived at is a societal mattersubject to public scrutiny.
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