Literature Review Matrix

  • Uncategorized

LiteratureReview Matrix

LiteratureReview Matrix

TraumaticBrain Injury (TBI) affects the lives of at least 1.7 millionAmericans every year TBI contributes to about thirty percent of allinjury-related deaths across all ages (Zaloshnja,Miller, Langlois, &amp Selassie, 2008).Therefore, the breakthroughs in the treatment of TBI is essential. Several TBI patients are living with the condition, but that does notmean that they are coping with it well. Some of the effects of TBIare behavioral changes sensory, cognitive, and communicationdeficits (Wu,Ying, &amp Gomez-Pinilla, 2006).TBI patients can manage to recover physically through therapy andsurgery, but their mental state might still be damaged. However, theTidal Wave Theory model is the first mental health recovery modelthat has been developed by health nurses, and it uses metaphors andsimiles to help patients recover from a traumatic experience and leadhealthy lives. For that matter, it is imperative to assess theeffectiveness and scope of the tidal wave model in comparison withother types of treatment available for TBI patients.

PartI: PICO Analysis

P:TBI patients

I: Treatment using tidal wave theory

C:TBI patients treated using the tidal wave theory

O:TBI patients treated using the tidal wave theory exhibit signs ofprogressive recovery compared to other types of treatment

PICOQuestion: Among TBI patients, do those being treated using the tidalwave theory exhibit signs of progressive recovery compared to othertypes of treatment?

PartII: Search Strategy

Step1: Resources utilized to find articles concerning the research topic

Electronicand academic databases, e-books, and published expert reports.

Step2: Identify search terms and criteria

Keywords and phrases, major authors, inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Step3: Identify Boolean search strings

“Traumatic”AND “Brain” AND “Injury” AND “Treatment” OR “tidal wavetheory/model” AND &quotNursing.&quot

PartIII: Literature Review

Step1: Summary of the articles selected

Table1: Analyzed Articles






Wilson, V. (2012). Research methods: focus groups. Evidence-Based Library and Information Practice, 7(1), 129-131.

Focus groups are a great source of quick and ample data for research purposes.

Qualitative method

Focus groups provide more accurate data compared to individual interviews.


Wahlström, M. R., Olivecrona, M., Koskinen, L. O. D., Rydenhag, B., &amp Naredi, S. (2005). Severe traumatic brain injury in pediatric patients: treatment and outcome using an intracranial pressure-targeted therapy—the Lund concept. Intensive care medicine, 31(6), 832-839.

Patients suffering from severe TBI can be treated using the Lund concept, though recovery is not full.

Qualitative and quantitative methods

Data collected through experiment, thus more precision.

The general outcome of the results cannot be attributed in all cases.

Hart, T., Whyte, J., Poulsen, I., Kristensen, K. S., Nordenbo, A. M., Chervoneva, I., &amp Vaccaro, M. J. (2016). How Do Intensity and Duration of Rehabilitation Services Affect Outcomes From Severe Traumatic Brain Injury? A Natural Experiment Comparing Health Care Delivery Systems in 2 Developed Nations. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation.

There is no significant difference between TBI patients that receive inpatient and outpatient services.

Qualitative method

The study has a control group and tested subjects, and the findings are reliable.

The study fails to account for other factors besides TBI, which might sway the outcome.

Li, Z. M., Xiao, Y. L., Zhu, J. X., Geng, F. Y., Guo, C. J., Chong, Z. L., &amp Wang, L. X. (2016). Recombinant human erythropoietin improves functional recovery in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: A randomized, double-blind and controlled clinical trial. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 150, 80-83.

Advanced medicine can help TBI patients improve their functional recovery.

Qualitative and quantitative methods

The study has a control group and tested subjects thus the findings are reliable.

Does not take into account all the variables involved.

Dahdah, M. N., Barnes, S., Amy, B., Dubiel, R., Dunklin, C., Callender, L., &amp Sherer, M. (2016). Variations in Inpatient Rehabilitation Functional Outcomes Across Centers in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) Study and the Influence of Demographics and Injury Severity on Patient Outcomes. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation.

Functional outcomes of patients differ across TBI rehabilitation centers.

Qualitative method

Several rehabilitation centers are used to make the findings more accurate.

The study does not account for the diverse environments, thus might make wrong interpretations.

Deselms, H., Maggio, N., Rubovitch, V., Chapman, J., Schreiber, S., Tweedie, D., &amp Pick, C. G. (2016). Novel pharmaceutical treatments for minimal traumatic brain injury and evaluation of animal models and methodologies supporting their development. Journal of neuroscience methods.

Effective pharmaceuticals can reduce the effects of trauma such as brain damage.

Qualitative method

Test subjects Rats) have been used and the outcome is promising.

There is still no guarantee that these pharmaceuticals will work on humans like they do with rats.

Tweedie, D., Rachmany, L., Kim, D. S., Rubovitch, V., Lehrmann, E., Zhang, Y. … &amp Greig, N. H. (2016). Mild traumatic brain injury-induced hippocampal gene expressions: The identification of target cellular processes for drug development. Journal of neuroscience methods.

Advancements in genetics might one day provide a breakthrough in understanding which part of the brain is affected by TBI.

Qualitative method

Test subjects Rats) have been used and the outcome is promising.

Lack of enough data due to the simple anatomy of the rat.

Wan, Y., Shi, L., Wang, Z., Sun, G., Pan, T., Zhang, S., &amp Zeng, Y. (2016). Effective treatment via early cranioplasty for intractable contralateral subdural effusion after standard decompressive craniectomy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Clinical neurology and neurosurgery, 149, 87-93.

Early treatment of patients suffering from TBI could be more effective

Qualitative method

Descriptive data

Interpreting data might be difficult due to the unique results of each patient.

Andrew, S. F., Rothemeyer, S., &amp Balchin, R. (2016). Improving traumatic brain injury outcomes: The development of evaluation and referral tool at Groote Schuur Hospital. World neurosurgery.

Quality healthcare is necessary for TBI patients.

Qualitative method

Variance in preferences as data are broken down into various sections.

Interpreting data is challenging

Horn, S. D., Corrigan, J. D., Bogner, J., Hammond, F. M., Seel, R. T., Smout, R. J. … &amp Whiteneck, G. G. (2015). Traumatic Brain Injury–Practice Based Evidence study: design and patients, centers, treatments, and outcomes. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 96(8), S178-S196.

TBI treatment methods need further research

Qualitative method

Patients from different recovery environments were used thus data is accurate.

Cannot determine why patients exhibit different reactions.

Step2: Summary of history and purpose of the research question.

Aftera head injury, one is usually given medical aid until her/hiscondition is stabilized, then, the patient can be evaluated toestablish the severity of the trauma. Besides physical recovery,there is usually the mental state that also needs to berehabilitated, and that is where most treatment methods fall short(Corrigan,Selassie, &amp Orman, 2010).However, tidal wave theory can guide a patient to mental recovery byusing metaphors and similes, which have proven to be effective. TBIis still a condition that is yet to be fully understood by expertsbecause a larger portion of how the brain functions have not yet beenknown (Corrigan,Selassie, &amp Orman, 2010).That might explain the slow progress in implementing some of thetreatment methods that have been researched using animal testsubjects. The human anatomy is too complex thus the effects of someinterventions are yet to be determined. The goal of the formulatedresearch question is to analyze how the tidal wave theory is relatedto TBI treatment, even in the event where the trauma is physical. Theprimary objective is to realize how the tidal wave theory couldcomplement other TBI treatment methods.

Step3: Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existingliterature

Theselected literature has utilized qualitative and quantitative methodsin analyzing the various methods that could be used to treat patientswith TBI. The research has validated some diagnosis methods, as wellas acknowledging the need for patient-specific treatment asemphasized in the tenth article on the table. One of the notabledisadvantages of the existing literature is that each research hasdocumented only one type of treatment without any comparison to otherforms of treatment. Research in TBI treatment is complicated andtime-consuming because some factors are still not understood byexperts in the field. For instance, healthcare providers cannotexplain why the results of outpatient and inpatient services forpersons suffering from TBI do not show any significant difference. Inthat regard, the studies conducted in the literature lack sufficientdata, which makes it difficult to account for all variables thatmight influence the outcome of any research concerning TBI.

Step4: What has the literature failed to discuss?

Theliterature has not addressed the technological aspect of researchconcerning treatment and management of TBI. Several technologicaladvances have been made through research, but patients and concernedpersons are not aware of their existence (Prigatano,2005).Therefore, it is critical to inform the public on currentdevelopments in research and treatment. In addition, the literaturehas not discussed some of the barriers that both patients andhealthcare givers encounter. The present classification of TBI asmild, moderate, and severe are insufficient to describe some of thecomplex medical conditions that result from brain injury (Wu,Ying, &amp Gomez-Pinilla, 2006).Furthermore, doctors in the department of neurology are makingefforts to try and understand the functioning of the brain so thatthey can develop patient-specific treatment methods. Also, there areno comprehensive guidelines regarding the best practices in thetreatment of TBI (Prigatano,2005).Conversely, the literature has only discussed some of the studiesconducted with the aim of achieving a more efficient treatment thedocumentation does not explain some of the best practices. For thatreason, most patients are likely to receive a substandard quality oftherapy. Moreover, TBI patients are faced with several challenges,most of which have not been analyzed and discussed. Some of theproblems facing TBI patients include difficulty in accessing qualitytreatment due to lack of finances, geographical factors, and notbeing well informed about the best practices available (Prigatano,2005).Finally, some of the economic, social, and political factors thataffect research in TBI treatment are not even mentioned. Forinstance, research in TBI treatment is underfunded compared to othertreatment programs that address conditions such as Parkinson’sdisease.

PartIV: Impact of empiricism on quantitative research methods and itsrelevance to projects that are based on evidence.

Empiricismprovides the practical experience needed to understand the principleof causation (cause and effects) of the research methods. In thiscontext, it deals with the roots of traumatic brain injury and itsimpact on the victims` life. Some patients may not survive theordeal, others can experience a gradual recovery process under theguidance of the tidal wave theory, and some victims are damagedpermanently.


Theeight article has proven that early diagnosis and treatment of TBIincreases the chances of a patient having a full recovery. However,without early diagnosis and treatment, traumas could affect a largepart of the brain, thus disrupting several functions such ascognitive ability and behavioral patterns. There are advancements intechnology regarding treatment of TBI, but the problem is that not somany TBI patients and concerned persons are aware of such advances intreatment. For that reason, the importance of tidal wave theoryshould be acknowledged, and the quality of health care systemsimproved to accommodate the specific needs of TBI patients.


Corrigan,J. D., Selassie, A. W., &amp Orman, J. A. L. (2010). Theepidemiology of traumatic brain injury. TheJournal of head trauma rehabilitation,25(2),72-80.

Prigatano,G. P. (2005). Disturbances of Self‐awarenessand Rehabilitation of Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: A 20‐YearPerspective. TheJournal of head trauma rehabilitation,20(1),19-29.

Wu,A., Ying, Z., &amp Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2006). Dietary curcumincounteracts the outcome of traumatic brain injury on oxidativestress, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. ExperimentalNeurology,197(2),309-317.

Zaloshnja,E., Miller, T., Langlois, J. A., &amp Selassie, A. W. (2008).Prevalence of Long‐TermDisability from Traumatic Brain Injury in the Civilian Population ofthe United States, 2005. TheJournal of head trauma rehabilitation,23(6),394-400.

Close Menu