Management Practices of Social Media Firms

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ManagementPractices of Social Media Firms

ManagementTheory and Practice related to social media firms

Itis without a doubt that social media practices and content have takenthe world by storm (Pan and Crotts, 2012). With the inception ofsocial media, consumers are responding to its call by engaging insocial network sites. Online customers are also taking part inmicroblogging, as well as indulging in the download of applicationsthat can be used in their social lives by enhancement of sharingactivities (Andzulis, Panagopoulos, and Rapp, 2012). The mostinteresting bit as presented by Divol, Edelman, and Sarrazin (2012)is that if Facebook users, a leading social networking site,constituted a country, they would, in fact, be considered to rank asthe third in the number of “citizens” after the populous Chinaand India. Application of social media in a vast number of sectorsseems to be taking effect.

Amajority of businesses are incorporating the social media tools intheir marketing strategies among many other activities that the mediais applied. Social media takes note of mobile and technology that isweb-based, to come up with platforms that are veryinteractive(Zhangand Sarvary, 2011). Social media has generated whatcan be said to be a new communication landscape. The development ofthis communication landscape began many years back. Currently, thesocial media ecology constitutes a diverse pool of sites. These sitesare different regarding their functionality, scope and focus(Kietzmann et al., 2011).

Arecap of the functionality and focus of some of the social mediasites is that some are meant for the general public, some are more ofprofessional networking purposes, some are meant for sharing with abias to photos and videos. For these social media firms to thrive asquite some of them have been noted to, certain theoretical models andframeworks are in place to ensure that they are properly managed(Kietzmann et al., 2011). It is critical to note that theorists havefor a long time tried to identify the most suitable management toolwhen it comes to dealing with people. The theories in management thathave been determined by the said theorists, as mentioned (2014), are aimed at bringing out the best of thepersonnel in organizations. Managers may incorporate bits of themanagement theories that are in place however, understanding of theapplication of the said theories is critical.

Socialmedia is a very powerful tool and its management ought to be powerfulas well.Management theories are aimed at enhancing the quality of theproduct and services that organizations offer as well as increasingthe productivity of the said organizations as noted by Hawthorne(n.d).One management theory that applies to the management of socialmedia firms is the Y theory. This Management Theory is also referredto as the Human resources management theory. The factors that areattributed to this theory include the fact that people have thedesire to work and that they have some sense of responsibilities andobjectives that ought to meet. The theory further holds that thesepeople would want to acquire success in what they do when they areaware of their place in the organizational structure (Dininni, 2011).

Thetheory Y is at times considered to be a motivational theory as notedby Dininni (2011). The theory views individuals as being independentand is quite the opposite from the theory X which employs the rulesof autocracy in the management of the organization. The applicationof theory Y managers, to their subjects promotes the activeparticipation of other staff (See Appendix 1 for the differencesbetween theory X and Y). According to Lowe and Brown (2016), whenlooking at this kind of management theory, certain factors come inhandy for managers to understand and which they ought to embrace intheir day to day management activities. These factors includeknowledge of intellectual perspectives, manual skills, and theinteraction of the social aspects as well as skills inproblem-solving. It is the embrace of such like factors, by themanagers of social media firms that are attributed to the growthwhich is noted in these companies.

Socialmedia companies that apply the above practices are bound to achieveoutstanding performances not only for the company but at a personallevel, as depicted by Lowe and Brown (2016). Management that isdeemed to be participative is considered to be the best option forsocial media companies. This is critical when making participatorydecisions that are aimed for the benefit of the company, especiallywith the incorporation of input from thecompetent task force who weremolded by the effective leadership present in the respective company.

Identificationof the components of theory Y is important, especially for theunderstanding of its application in the organizational setting, inthis case, social media firms. According to Friesen (2014), somepointers are crucial to understanding the application of theory Y.Having a vision is critical where expectations for the future arenoted. In this component, strategic planning may be applied in thebid to realize the vision of the company. Leadership that iseffective is paramount where in this case reduction in the gapbetween the management and the staff is advised. Thirdly, planningactivities and decision-making ought to go hand in hand.Participative leadership is imperative to uphold in this sense.Communication that is free of errors is crucial where honesty,simplicity, positivity and good listening skills are necessary. Thecontrol that is administered by the management ought to be reasonablewhere over-controlling instances are eliminated. Promotion of trustwill facilitate the control that is administered to the employees.Recognition is the other component that is mandatory to emphasize andhere, both formal and informal recognitions can be offered to theemployees in the hunt to garner maximization in motivation.

Afterhaving noted the above factors that pertain to theory Y, and lookingat the application of the theory in social media firms and furthernarrowing down to the most successful firms, it is evident that thetheory is deeply rooted in these companies. For these businesses tothrive, the management practices have incorporated the components ofthe theory Y. The success that is noted in Facebook is attributed tothe productivity of the employees who are in a position to work in amotivating environment that they are subjected. The employees havebeen part of the team that has churned out products and services thatare gaining user popularity by the day and are as a result producingrevenue for the company. Facebook, according to Wilson, Gosling andGraham (2012), is integrated with applications and websites in therange of millions a scenario that adds to the productivity of thecompany. The outcome of the integration is consumer traffic. Theseconsumers are interested in the content available on the social site.The user traffic that is evident on Twitter and Facebook sites, forinstance, are a clear depiction of the success of companies that areboth very productive and fruitful.

Socialmedia firms in the efficient management of the products lifecycle

Beforelooking at the management of the products lifecycle, it is criticalto note the stages that are present in any given products lifecycle.It is notable that a product lifecycle consists of five stages whichinclude product development, introduction, growth, maturity andfinally, the decline stage (Claessens, 2015). It is critical to notethat not all stages of the product lifecycle apply to all productsthe strategies that are employed in the lifecycle are what make thedifference.

Socialmedia products like applications and platforms arecreating a buzz inthe technology platform, a phenomenon that calls for productawareness, a critical function for the introductory phase of alifecycle. Social media engagement is essential at this stage, andthis has facilitated the effectiveness of the said social sites.YouTube, Facebook, blogs, and widgets have been noted to engage theconsumers quite well. The customer traffic pointed out in these sitesis a real testimony of their engagement ability.

Socialmedia firms have been effective in the management of the growth andmaturity stages of their PLC. The development of products andservices that are new, by the companies dealing with social mediahave facilitated the amassing of a high number of users that aremassive in numbers. These companies have as a result been able togrow with every developmental step that they make and by the time aproduct or service hits the decline stage, a new product is alreadyintroduced or modified which further increases the attention of theirusers. Social media companies have been able to record a high numberof users because of the attitudes that they convey to theconsumers.The attitudes expressed by these firms, to their customers,affect the consumer behavior. This information is covered in thesection below.

Attitudestowards the consumer that the social media companies convey

Asnoted by Ioanăs, and Stoica (2014), the media has got a hugeinfluence on the perception that its users have. The users can airtheir criticisms based on the information that is presented on thesocial media sites. Having an understanding of the consumer behavioron the online platform is critical given the statistics that ispresent concerning worldwide online users (Schivinski, and Dabrowski,2016). The number of online consumers has been noted to be growingworldwide as mentioned by Schivinski, and Dabrowski, (2016), and thiscalls for the need for understanding consumer behavior as mentionedearlier.

Socialnetwork sites like YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, provide avenuesfor promoting their brand awareness because of the products andservices that they offer. These sites have visitors on a daily basiswho reach to the tune of five million users, and this occurrencemakes them the best shot when it comes to marketing. Social mediacommunication has a potential effect on the consumer by the promotionof the following aspects brand equity, brand attitude as well as thepurchasing intention (Schivinski, and Dabrowski, 2016). It isessential to note at this juncture that social media communicationhas transformed the one-way communicationthat is traditional innature. The communication that is promoted by social media is onethat is said to be multidimensional and two-way (Schivinski, andDabrowski, 2016).

Socialmedia has been noted to influence consumer behavior by affecting theperception of the consumer. Provision of content and information thatis deemed to be relevant is critical in this respect. Consumerparticipation in the social media is also likely to promote theperception of the customer.According to Naidoo (2011), to determinethe influence that is present on a given brand, using social media,consideration must be offered to the content source, sourceauthority, and the content.

Socialmedia companies promote beliefs their brands. The views that anindividual may have about a product can be either positive ornegative. Social media companies, attempt to influence the positiveopinions of a consumer and mask the negative ones.Social media users,based on their beliefs will tend to be affected given the feelingsthat they hold. It is critical to note that some feelings that theconsumer develops regarding a particular brand, product or servicemay be free from the beliefs that they hold, rather, the feelings maybe attributed to other circumstances. After the customer is affectedby either beliefs or other conditions, their intention to purchasewill ensue from the developed brand attitude, as noted by(Schivinski, and Dabrowski, 2016).

Theattitudes that social media companies convey are facilitated byfactors like the promotion of consumer engagement, building of brandattitudes that are deemed to be very positive, as well as throughcustomer relationship management enhancement as noted by Naidoo(2011). The means through which social media companies utilize theabove factors distinguish the sites that are very popular. Thesection below will expound more on the above factors and thus explainwhy one social media version tends to be more popular compared to theothers.

Thereason why one version of social media may be more popular or moresuccessful than others

Researchhas proven that among the many social media sites that are available,Facebook tops the list. Facebook is an example of the socialnetworking sites, which is a component of the larger social media.Other versions of social media include microblogging sites, blogs,podcasts, forums, wikis, and content communities (Yudhokesumo, 2011).The success and popularity of social networking sites are subject todebate. Social networking sites are more popular, in as far as thenumber of users is concerned as well as the brand names that arepresent under the heading (Helmrich, 2016). This social networkingsite is noted to have active users that total over 1 billion, on theglobal platform. This platform is used to connect individuals inpersonal as well as in business perspectives. This site is noted tobe very versatile, and it connects people in different aspects.

Multipleoptions are available on Facebook which facilitates its usage.Depending on the industry that an individual is noted to be part of,Facebook meets a majority of the needs. Facebook, as noted byHelmrich (2016), as compared to other social sites, tend to have lowmaintenance. The element of low maintenance is attributed to thedifference that exists,regarding the fans of an individual, when oneposts many or few updates in a day. In summary, Facebook has seen itssuccess because the site is easy to use, has features that are veryaccessible and its name that is noted to be very memorable (Shah,2016). It is also clear that Facebook`s success is connoted to thefact that the site promotes both openness and honesty. The meaning ofthis is that people desire to be themselves and so Facebook comes inhandy to offer a platform where people can, in fact, be themselves(Shah, 2016).

Facebookhas grown tremendously since its inception, and is just but anexample of a social networking site, a version of social media thatis seen to have thrived globally. Some factors have been attributedto its growth in as far as popularity and success are concerned.These factors will be addressed in the section below.

Factorsthat lead to the success and popularity of Social Networking sites

Asmentioned earlier, Facebook has grown over the years since it wasintroduced back in 2004 (Maina, 2016). The factors that have placedFacebook in its number one position in the area of the leading socialmedia sites in the world are as follows.

Innovativenessand smart actions

Socialnetworking sites are considered to be very innovative with a goodexample being Facebook. Facebook is one of the most innovativecompanies on the web which is noted to make very smart moves as faras product development is concerned. These smart moves are the onesthat differentiate this site from other sites in social networking.Ever since the company’s inception back in 2004, Facebook hasintroduced some innovative products that include the Facebookplatform which boasts many apps that have gained the attention of theusers in the global arena (See Appendix 3 for review of Facebook).These Facebook apps prompted the inception of the FacebookApplication store where the organization of information would befacilitated (Shah, 2016). The introduction of this display broughtattention to Facebook which further brought its success.


Facebookwas one of the first social media sites that introduced it`s famous&quotlike button&quot (Shah, 2016). This button allowed users toenhance the power associated with social networking by the creationof impressions and other users enjoying the positive content that isdisplayed by others (Chou, and Edge, 2012). Other social networkingsites followed suit with the incorporation of the &quotlike button.&quotGoogle was one of the companies that embraced the leadership ofFacebook and it in fact gained in the number of people that visitedthe site on a daily basis. This service allowed Facebook to gain morevisits by new users and within a short while, many visitors indulgedin the now famous, “liking” trend.

Abilityto induce positivity

Socialnetworking sites have been noted to cause positive reactions amongits users, and it is for this reason that they tend to be verysuccessful (Mauri et al., 2011). Some social networking sites, likeFacebook, have been noted to induce positive emotions on the users anoccurrence that further promotes the discovery of creative and novelactions as well as the discovery of social bonds and ideas. Theoutcome of the above discoveries is the development of personalresources that are relevant to an individual for survival purposes(Mauri et al., 2011). It is this reason that prompts users to behooked to a Social Networking site and such people will tend to beactive on these sites.

TheMost valuable resource for social media firm management

Insocial media firm management, the most important resource is theconsumer. Some differences exist when looking at the traditional andsocial media spending (Weinberg and Pehlivan, 2011). The similarity,however, is that the spending places the consumer at the focal pointof the activities of the firm. The management of a social mediacompany, therefore, ought to address the issues that surround thecustomer. The term &quotsocial&quot in social media sheds light onthe social aspect, and it is this component that brings in theperspective of the consumer. It is critical to understand that socialmedia, as pointed out by Weinberg, and Pehlivan, 2011), is not asubstitute for the traditional media, in the sense that social mediacan be used even with the incorporation of the traditional mediaperspectives.

Asocial approach is critical when dealing with consumers given thedigital age that is currently in place. Social media can offerempowerment to consumers and thus allow them to garner influencewhich in turn creates a relationship that is enabling, betweenindividuals and the respective organizations. The management ofsocial media companies should. Therefore, address matters revolvingaround the consumers given that it is the consumer traffic that willensure that these sites are successful and are popular at the end ofthe day. The management of these companies can promote their spendingin this area by making sure that the following areas are addressed intheir strategic planning procedures, engagement, conversation, humanvoice, sharing, collaboration and openness(Weinberg and Pehlivan,2011) (See Appendix 2). In summary, control centers for social mediawill promote consumer evangelism which would further boost consumertraffic and which ensures success for a given social media site.

Soundmanagement functionality in a social media firm will, therefore, lookinto the consumer resource in its management procedures, a phenomenondubbed as customer relationship management. Companies ought toembrace this new form of strategy that shifts from managingcustomers, but instead, looks at the collaborations that can be donewith the consumers. Getting closer to customers should be thepriority of the management of social media firms if they are to offerto value to the consumers, which is tangible and as a result gainfrom the consumer`s time, money, attention, information andendorsement (Heller Baird, and Parasnis, 2011).

Socialmedia firms from USA and China and their effect on customer loyalty

Itis critical to note that the US and China are part of the biggestconsumers of social media with China topping the list of the saidcustomers. The information presented below provides insights of thesocial media firms in China and the US.

Accordingto the information presented by Olivier (2015), 91% of the peoplethat use online facilities have active social media accounts. Theamount spent on the internet on a daily basis, among the Chineseconsumers is 46 minutes, and part of this time is spent navigatingthrough eight popular brands where choices that pertain to marketingare made (Olivier, 2015). The choices are made regarding therecommendations that are placed on these social media sites. It is,therefore, imperative for marketers to increase their brand presenceby being very active on the social media sites.

Accordingto Olivier (2015), online discussions that the Chinese consumersindulge in, concerning product brands, are capable of directlyaffecting the businesses in question. Companies that market theirbrands online in China have resorted to standing out from others inthe industry by being conversant with what consumers feel aboutproducts. The fast changing consumer market in China requires theexploitations of five trends that are paramount for the success ofbusinesses. Decision-making, social media, innovation, loyalty andsetting of high expectations are part of the trends that are criticalfor businesses to exploit (Chan, Chen, and Ying, 2012). The patternsas mentioned earlier have the capability to enforce a marketingstrategy that is deemed to be unique, promote a customer enablingenvironment as well as promote customer retention activities.Businesses that have the ability to see success in their endeavorsare the ones that pursue the trends as presented above (Chan, Chen,and Ying, 2012).

Socialmedia in the US on the other hand is well established and isone ofthe biggest markets in the Western world. According to Burkhalter,and Wood (2015), as of 2012, the number of adult online subscribersin the US was at 69%. Out of the 69%, Facebook was utilized bytwo-thirds of the proportion LinkedIn was used by 20%, while 16% ofthe proportion self-reported to be using Twitter (Burkhalter, andWood, 2015). Almost all age groups were noted to have used socialnetworking sites in the US, at some points of their lives. Theaverage age of consumers who utilize social media in the US is 40years old (Burkhalter, and Wood, 2015). The American social mediacompanies have gained popularity overseas, in particular with thepresence of loyalty from these foreign groups (Burkhalter, and Wood,2015).


Thesocial media in China is influenced by word of mouth that spreadsconcerning brands that are marketed. Opinions from colleagues, familymembers and friends concerning products are treasured in China asnoted by Chan, Chen, and Ying (2012). Other Chinese consumers madetheir marketing choices based on the information presented in socialmedia by strangers as well. It is because of the online market inChina that social media sites are noted to have multiple reviews andviews on an annual basis with a good example being the Shanghai cityguide referred to as the the site as mentioned earlier, consumers rate both restaurants andmerchants that are present in Chinese cities. The meaning of theabove occurrence is that for companies to appeal to the Chinesemarkets, they ought to employ the usage of distribution channels thatare aimed at delivering an experience that is consistent. With theconsistency, the companies will have news concerning the compellingexperiences they offer, spread by consumers in social media and thiswould, in turn, spark the development of the companies and in thecase of poor reviews, such businesses can engage in continuousimprovement techniques.

Inthe majority of Chinese online market consumers tend to share theirimpressions concerning the products that they have used. The Chineseconsumers use social media sites as well as blogging sites for thepurpose of gaining insights on products and services that areoffered. SinaWeibo is an example of a microblogging site whereconsumer traffic is evident. The site is visited by more than a halfof Chinese internet users who follow brands that were referred tothem by other consumers. Research has revealed that Chinese consumersbelieve that social media has promoted their engagement with popularbrands. The users are also aware of the fact that their indulgent insocial media has promoted the fact that they are aware of theproviders of certain services and products which they were not aware.Their decision-making processes influence the consumers in theChinese market, who use social media in their decision-making by theremarks indicated in the sites concerning products and services. Forcompanies to reap full benefits from the services that they offer, inthe Chinese market particularly, they ought to identify ways ofengaging the Chinese consumers by social media usage. Interaction inthe setting of social networks is critical in the Chinese marketwhere consumers will view businesses that are active in social mediaas being favorable.

Customerexperiences are essential in creating impressions. A negativecustomer experience is likely to undermine customer relationships.Undermining customer relations will tend to have an effect oncustomer loyalty. It is rather hard to maintain customerrelationships, as mentioned by Chan, Chen, and Ying (2012),particularly in the Chinese market. The reason for this occurrence isbecause a good proportion of Chinese consumers tell about badcustomer experience, a good number of these clients post about thenegative experiences that they have had. Chan, Chen, and Ying (2012),however, mentioned concerning the presence of customer loyaltyprograms that are available in China, which are aimed at combatingnegative experiences that consumers face. The programs use mobileplatforms as well as programs provided by both the internet serviceproviders and the banks. Here, consumers are urged to maintain theirservice providers in the relevant industries.

Theseprograms are seen to be fruitful in persuading consumers to observetheir loyalty with their providers. The very presence of theseprograms shows that Chinese consumers are critical when it comes toimpression and that a single ill experience can, in fact, go viraland thus affect the development of “culprit companies” associatedwith negative experiences. It was noted by Chan, Chen and Ying (2012)that customer loyalty for the Chinese consumers was more thanfinancial incentives. Other factors played a critical role incustomer loyalty and these include CSR, communication that is bothhonest and truthful as well as the avenues for consumers to engage inactivities that pertain to improvement in the design of products andservices that are offered by companies. These factors ought to beaddressed by companies that utilize social media in their businessactivities.

Chinese consumers expect service acquisition that is not barred byhassles. These consumers expect customer service speed, productknowledge by the provider as well as the ease for in acquisition ofinformation concerning a product or service. Companies in the China,through social media, struggle to ensure that negative customerexperience is avoided by providing the consumers with what theyrequire. Businesses, as a result, become well-positioned for theprovision of customer experience that is said to be holistic were animprovement in customer service is notable. Companies, therefore,distinguish themselves from competition that is available in thesocial media industry.

Consumersmay be the source of innovation because they provide feedback onproducts and services that they find to be very innovative. They alsoportray their preferences and behavior regarding a particularproduct, and the outcome is that the information garnered can be usedin innovation activities. Consumers in the Chinese markets are veryadventurers and will, as a result, seek to identify new experiencesthat aid customers in the launching of new products and services.With the technology craze that has set roots in the Chinese socialmedia market, the young, as well as the population that is connected,tends to engage in innovation programs that are technology based. Theaverage age of the social media consumers in China are of the meanage of 28 years, and these consumers are well educated (Burkhalter,and Wood, 2015). The outcome is that innovation becomes promoted inthe Chinese companies through social media.

Thecustomers in the US that use social media do not quite rely onreferrals like their Chinese consumers. They, in fact, are not swayedby social media to make purchases like their Chinese counterparts(Swift, 2014). The percentage of individuals who heed the opinion oftheir referrals in the US is at 38% compared to the Chinesecounterparts who almost double the consumers in the US market, at 66%(Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012). Social media in the US, among itscustomers, is not a large occurrence or phenomenon like it is inChina (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012). On the contrary, the socialmedia consumers in China provide feedback on innovative products,expect accessible services that are available through social media,and worry about impression creation, share impression by offeringreferrals (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012). This shows that theChinese consumers consider social media to be a significantphenomenon in their lives (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012). Socialmedia users in the US tend to prefer easy navigation tools showingthat the social media culture in the US is less technical (Lee,2014).


Thesocial media in China is highly competitive in nature. Thiscompetitive market has sparked the inception of writers who areartificial (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012). The writers have theintention of identifying positive feedback for the companies thatthey work for, and at the same time, they use negative news to attackcompetitors and their products (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012). Thedevelopment of microblogs was aimed at addressing such negativereports by competitors whose names have been at the point of beingtarnished. Biased views concerning consumer behavior and preferencesmay be present in the cases where countermeasures aimed at addressingsocial media crises are not utilized very well (Chiu, Ip, andSilverman, 2012). The content that is mostly shared in China’ssocial media is one that constitutes retweets, images, videos andjokes (Yu, Asur, and Huberman, 2011

Socialmedia in the US is competitive similarly to China. The content inTwitter revolves around current trends that are present in thecurrent world as well as stories that pertain to news (Yu, Asur, andHuberman, 2011).

Socialmedia platforms

Twitter,according to Burkhalter, and Wood (2015), is the leadingmicroblogging site in the US. The other social media site that isvery popular in the US is Facebook as noted by Burkhalter, and Wood(2015). These sites, in the bid to gain customer loyalty, employ theusage of the following characteristics authenticity, accessibility,and interactivity (Burkhalter, and Wood, 2015). Social media tools inthe US are less developed compared to the explosive development inChina (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012). Twitter, for instance, setfoot in the US eighteen months after social media content began toembed the users in China (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012).

TheChinese social media does not have shared sites like Facebook,Twitter, and YouTube, instead, the sector boasts of local sites whichhave employed a strategy that is, in fact, winning the heart of thesocial media market in the country (Chan, Chen, and Ying, 2012). Thesocial media in China is characterized by having the most active poolor rather, environment for consumers (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012).The social media scene in China began back in 1994, eighteen monthsbefore its adoption began in the US (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012).The explosive growth of sites Dianping (review site), blogging sites,Renren (site in social networking), SinaWeibo and Jiepang, over aspan of almost two decades, is part of the reason why the Chinesesocial media market is unique.

China’ssocial media platforms tend to be not only local, as earliermentioned, but they are also fragmented as noted by Chiu, Ip, andSilverman, (2012). Platforms in social media and e-commerce have keyplayers. These are as follows in microblogging, there is theTencentWeibo and SinaWeibo (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012). In socialnetworking, there is the Kaixin001 and Renren (Chiu, Ip, andSilverman, 2012). It is critical to note that these social mediasites have differences in the areas of expertise, strengths, focusand priorities of the geographical perspectives (Chiu, Ip, andSilverman, 2012). The fragmentation present in China`s social mediaenhances complexity in the sector which in turn requires expertiseand resources for proper monitoring and development the key playersand platforms in the industry (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012).

Managementpractices and theories from social media firms that are mosteffective for the industry players

Whennarrowing down to the practicality of the social media companies,certain practices are adopted in the bid to garner strategies thatprovide winning results. The strategies that are employed have seenthe success of social media companies in countries like China and theUS. The management theories that are practiced in the social mediacompanies facilitate the adoption of practices that ensure that theyare successful. The adoption of theory Y has resulted in theproductivity of employees who come up with creative materials thatpromote consumer engagement. The most successful companies in socialmedia are known to have content that is authentic which in turnengage the customers. In their social media efforts, these firmsembrace brand goals. Information regarding the management practicesis as mentioned below.

Authenticityof content as well as flexibility

Theincorporation of content authenticity in social media has setcompanies apart from their competitors, and as a result, seencompanies enjoy success in their endeavors. In China, the launch ofClinique’s drama series, Sufei’s Diary, was met by success giventhat the product was marketed on a daily basis via a dedicatedwebsite. As part of the content of the drama was a storyline in skincare and products. The series was advertised in segments and could beviewed in monitors displayed on transport media like trains, buses,and planes. The outcome was that the product received multiple viewsthat resulted in an increment in Clinique`s online brand awarenesscompared to competitors who utilize traditional marketing approaches(Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012).

QZoneis a successful networking site in China which is noted to beattractive because of its flexibility. This site allows for contentcustomization which allows the user to acquire new and originalexperiences for the consumers (Olivier, 2015).

WeChat,a social network site in China practices strategies that are involvedin the provision of content that is unique, to its consumers.Customer loyalty and brand reputation of the site has seen a positiveimpact where tremendous growth has been promoted in the social site(Olivier, 2015).

Testingand learning approach

Thelist of examples of companies that have seen social media success islong, with an example of Dove China which employed the testing andlearning approach. In this example, Dove China, in the bid to marketbeauty product lines among women, the company collaborated with aChinese version of Ugly Betty dubbed as Ugly Wudi, in the effort topass beauty messages to the target market. Blogs, initiatives, andchats (online) sparked an increment in the searches related to theproduct as well as blogs and usage of the Dove line of goods by thetime the show was coming to an end of its first season. 44% of brandawareness was achieved among the target population with an incrementin profitability from the usage of the Dove product lines (Chiu, Ip,and Silverman, 2012).The profitability was much higher as opposed towhen the usage of television marketing media is applied.

Brandgoals in social media efforts and consumer engagement

Somebusinesses have employed this form of company approach in China. Inthis method, companies ensure consistency in the promotion ofmessages that pertain to quality, social responsibility, andcommunity development, in the online platform as well as in the inthe stores (Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012). This technique has beenapplied by Starbucks in China as well as Durex. Durex, has, in fact,employed the usage of the services of SinaWeibo, where the marketingexecutives that are on standby monitoring the comments that arepresented online and as a result respond by the incorporation ofcontent which consumers will find to be funny. This approach isinvolved with the creation of an interactive platform which is aimedat gaining customer engagement, which further builds brand loyalty(Chiu, Ip, and Silverman, 2012).

SinaWeibois a company that benefits from acquiring feedback from consumers.This site is concerned with customer engagement activities. From suchengagement, the site has been able to grow to become one of theleading social media sites in China.

Twitterand Facebook, are the largest social media sites in the West, inparticular among the young population. These social media consumersfollow brands online, and they, as a result, end up spending a lot oftime in the sites as mentioned earlier. Twitter is being utilized inCorporates for communication as well as for enhancing consumerengagement as noted by Burkhalter, and Wood (2015). Corporations arepaying significant attention to the younger generation (GenerationY), even as they work to make sure that this generation is reachedand as a result, promote brand engagement.


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