PlanningBetter Health for the Future
Reducingcancer morbidity and mortality
Presently,lifestyles diseases are number one causes of death all over theworld, according to WHO (2014), these conditions contribute to over63 percent of the global deaths. Cancer is a disease whereby theabnormal cells split without control and hence attack other tissuesof the body. The disease can have an effect on any part of the body.The cancer cell extend to other regions of the body via the blood andlymph systems. The adjustment from a standard cell into a tumor celloccurs in stages. That is, the development from a pre-cancerouslesion to dangerous tumors. These transformations are due tointeractions between an individual genetic factor as well as theexternal agents namely, chemical carcinogens including the contentsof tobacco, asbestos, environmental carcinogens such as the ionizingradiation and ultraviolet and lastly the biological carcinogensincluding the infections from specific bacteria, viruses, andparasites. Studies indicate that there are 100 known types of cancerthe common ones include the breast cancer, lung cancer prostatecancer, and colon cancer. Studies show the number of deathsattributed to cancer annually is 173.8 per 100,000 male and females.The probability of developing cancer is estimated to 40 percent forboth men and women. Researchers indicate that the type of cancer thatkills most in the United States is lung cancer it causes the deathof more than 158,000 every year. Excessive usage of tobacco causeslung cancer smoking is thought to aggravate the outcomes in thecancer patient. In fact, tobacco usage is estimated to generate over30% of cancer deaths which leads to over $190 billion economic losses(American Cancer Society, 2012).Thus, the community-based healthprogram will target the adults since they are at high risk ofcontracting cancer.
Rationaleof the reducing cancer morbidity and mortality
Therate at which cancer is causing deaths globally is worrying. Thegovernment of various nations should be at all costs integrating avariety of policies that are destined to lessen the risk of cancer.An example of these systems includes programs that aim at reducingcancer mortality. In America, the number of individuals diagnosedwith cancer is growing at alarming rate owing to aging. This isbecause of buildup risks for particular diseases that progress withage. The general risk accumulation is combined with the tendency forre-establish cellular mechanisms that tends to be less efficient asthe person ages. There is the need to incorporate policies, servicesas well as programs to address the factors that cause cancer.Countries are spending billions of money to support cancer –patientssince the treatment for cancer requires a comprehensive treatment.The money could be used elsewhere to foster the development of thatparticular country this hence explains why most nations especiallythe developing economies are lagging behind. Moreover, thesecountries are losing energetic individuals who contributesignificantly to the development of the country. Thesecommunity-based programs will help to detect cancer at earlier stagesas well as suggesting measures that assist to lessen the risks ofcancer hence saving the costs associated treatment of cancer.
Howto establish the program
Developingthe community-based health program regarding measures to reducecancer morbidity and mortality will involve various stakeholders.Detecting cancer at earlier stages will make the treatment procedureseasier. Moreover, the saying goes prevention is better than cure, thechances of lessening contraction of cancer will hence save thecountries’ expenses in line with the treatment of cancer. Studiesindicate over 30% of the deaths attributed to cancer can be preventedby evading the following risk factors: overweight, usage of tobacco,Lack of physical exercise, usage of alcohol, pollution, eating anunbalanced diet, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation among other riskfactors. Hence, these community programs will be tailored to addressthese risk factors. The government will thus need to establish morehealth centers especially in rural areas where there are constraintsin accessing medical care. Moreover, subsidizing parts of the healthcare services will increase the turn-up rate for cancer treatments.Also, the ministry of health in various countries should put measuresdestined to raise awareness regarding cancer via the social mediathese actions include the ways to avoid cancer as well as treatmentprocedures. Besides, mobile clinics should be introduced as part ofthe community health program regarding cancer treatment (Jerjes,Upile & Radhi, 2012).
Theseclinics help to identify cancer patients mostly at local areas whocannot access medical services due to financial constraints. Also,with the current technology the health institutions have considerablyevolved. There are machines integrated to help in the detection ofcancer at earlier stages as well as treatment. In line with this,since these devices are very expensive, the governments shouldsubsidize importation of equipment to ensure every hospital has thepotential of treating cancer.
Additionally,experienced personnel with relevant skills in the medical fieldshould be hired in these health facilities to enhance greaterresults. The government should hence make sure the medical collegeshave the appropriate facilities to improve their education. Moreover,the ministry of education should keep on organizing seminars mostlyat community levels that are strategized in addressing cancer issues.For instance, the workshops train community members on the advantagesof eating the balanced diet by advocating consumption of culturalfood such as greens which are rich in nutrients. Seminars shouldencourage individuals to exercise regularly, as well as minimizingthe exposure to the sun to reduce the risks of contracting skincancer. This can be done by wearing protective clothing such assunglasses, hat alongside other clothing. Junk food increases chancesof weight which to some extent is thought to cause cancer. Besides,since tobacco use and alcohol intake are risk factors associated withcancer, the government can incorporate various measures thatdiscourage their intakes. For example, it can tax these substancesheavily thus increasing their prices which discourage some peoplefrom consuming them. Also, establishing smoking zones helps sincemost people are passive smokers hence will limit their exposure.Besides, setting strict rules against the consumption of alcoholduring particular hours of the day will discourage the number ofpublic who takes alcohol.
Otheraspects that can be incorporated in these programs include theestablishment of research programs that helps to find more on thetreatment of cancer disease. For instance, countries should keep onresearching on more causes of cancer to maintain their citizens safe.Extensive scientific research should be incorporated that suggeststhe probable cancer causes and prevention techniques. Moreover, theseprograms help in the production of new knowledge, publicize existingknowledge to promote the incorporation of evidence-based techniquesto cancer control. Also, they help the country to be updatedregarding technology since machines and equipment that treat cancerkeeps on evolving. The government should fund the programs adequatelyto help them in their research. Also, education institutions such ascolleges should be taught on how to deal with cancer-related issues.For instance, the school management should integrate subjects thataddress on how to avoid lifestyle-related diseases such as cancer(Dahlstrom, Calzada & Hanby, 2013).
` Theministry of health in various countries should advocate as well assubsidize vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) toencourage people to turn up in large numbers. The humanpapillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevents cervical cancer and some othertypes of cancer. Hepatitis B vaccine helps to lessen the risk ofliver cancer. Further, it should encourage screening which aims atdetermining those persons with the abnormalities that are symptoms ofthe disease and refer them for special treatment. Screening programsare often cost-effective, acceptable by most people from differentcultures and they are accessible by most persons. The programs shouldhence avail four types of cancer screening programs, they include,HPV which test for cervical cancer, PAP also for cervical cancer inmiddle and high-income areas, Visual check which has the acetic acidand it is utilized to monitor cervical cancer in low-income areas.Lastly, the mammography tests for examining breast cancer inhigh-resourceful settings (WHO, 2014).
Moreover,development of standards and tools to direct the planning andaccomplishment of interventions in various regions that aim atdetecting, prevention, and care should introduce. Examples of theseprograms include funding programs. These programs coupled with theincorporation of the wide range of networks associated with thecancer control partners and experts all over the world, regions aswell as national levels will increase the cancer awareness at alllevels. Ministry of health should focus on strengthening healthsystems at the state and community levels to help deliver the cure aswell as care for all individuals.
Budgetaryrestraints effects on the Reducing cancer morbidity and mortality
Countriesspend billions of money annually on the treatment and prevention ofcancer. Cancer treatment requires a substantially amount of money asit is done in multistage. Moreover, most nations have invested a lotof money in the medical field research to integrate currenttechnology, new medicines as well as new ways of treating patients.For instance, cancer treatment must be effective since every type ofcancer needs a particular treatment procedure which covers severalmodalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Also,treatment involves palliative care which aims at reducing pain ratherthan cure of the symptoms related to cancer. It is a humanitarianrequirement for individuals with cancer globally (WHO, 2014).Thegovernment supports all these treatments to some extent.
Thereare instances when a particular country is maybe experiencingeconomic downturns due to various reasons such as weakening of itscurrency, strive competition globally regarding its products as wellas other issues. These issues result to limited budget restraints inthe field of medical research. Consequently, health institutions willbe adversely affected, for instance, most of the machines andequipment that treat cancer are expensive to maintain and acquire.They consume a significant amount of power, and they also requireskilled personnel to keep on scrutinizing them. With low funds, thehospitals will not be able to treat the cancer patients adequately.Hence, more deaths will be experienced as well as the burden forcancer patients. It will further affect the country adversely sincethe death of energetic people who contribute to the country‘sdevelopment. Also, the nation will be incapable of paying its medicalexperts well this will result in the poor quality of services aswell as brain drain as physicians will be forced to move to othercountries in search of good payments. More people will seek medicalservices from private hospitals and outside countries which are veryexpensive. Hence, limited budgetary will lead to the overall weakperformance in the medical field.
AmericanCancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2012. Available at
http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/docum.Accessed November 26, 2013.
DahlstromK.R, Calzada G, Hanby J.D, et al. (2013) An evolution indemographics, treatment,
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JerjesW, Upile T, Radhi H, et al.(2012) The effect of tobacco and alcoholand their
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WorldHealth Organization, W. (2014). IARC Publications Website – WorldCancer Report
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