Reviewof Stonehenge Monument
Stonehengeis situated in England in Salisbury and is one of the most popularmonuments of the Neolithic world. Notably, more than half a millionpeople visit the shrine annually. Some of the memorial`s uniquefeatures are the fact that it is shockingly big and very ancient(Worthington 10). This paper will focus on the how Stonehengemonument was built. Additionally, it will discuss the reasons as towhy the statue was crafted. Finally, it will make an analysis of whythe monument is particularly a product of the culture, and how itreflects or exemplifies the people who created it.
Howit reflects the individuals who built Stonehenge
Historiansagree that the ring of stones was not made all at one time rather,the whole area under which it is constructed was a site of ongoingprehistoric fascination and construction since around 3000BCaccording to carbon dating done on the region. Modern archaeologistsbelieve that Druids did not build Stonehenge, contrary to popularbelief and that it was mostly likely started during the Neolithicperiod, way before the Celts arrived in Britain. What allarchaeologists concur with is that the builders of Stonehenge workwere remarkable and talented. The time taken to create Stonehenge wasvery long, and it must have been set up in distinct stages, and thebuilders of this monument belonged to different groups. A theoryformulated by Archaeologists explain that the first group of peopleto start working on the stones were the Windmill Hill individuals whostarted by building large mounds and circular furrows. This factionwas one of the first semi-nomadic gathering and hunting groups whomaintained an intense reverence for symmetry and circles, and theyall had an agricultural economy.
Thesecond assortment of individuals to have been involved with buildingthis striking work is thought to have originated from Spain, and theywere known as the Beaker people. These people were highly organizedand industrious. As they solved their day to day problems usingsophisticated mathematical concepts, the chieftain system was used tomanage their society. This group showed more reverence for death asthey buried their deceased in small round graves, which were markedby mounds referred to as tumuli.
Thelast faction to have worked on the Stonehenge site was the Wessexpeople who are believed to have arrived at the height of the BronzeAge, which was about 1500BC. They were seen as the most advancedcultures during this period to have been outside the Mediterranean.Their settlement was around old roads or Ridgeways. The Wessex peopleare believed to have been responsible for the bronze dagger carvingthat was found by archaeologists on one of the large sarsen stone.
Reasonsas to why Stonehenge was created
Severaltheories are explaining why Stonehenge was built. The most recentdiscoveries exhibit the fact that Stonehenge`s landscape used to bean area, which was sacred, and which was passed through regularchange. Bradley explains that it was a very complex landscape, whereritual and professional activities were conducted, and peopletraveled long distances just to go and see the monument (215). Afterconsidering all these factors, it is evident that people were unifiedby different issues, whereby they met and conducted some undertakingsconcerning rituals and specific actions as well. Spiritualsignificance was also a meaning of the monument in this light, someresearchers have come to the conclusion that Stonehenge was built asa mark of Britain`s unification this is a moment when individualsacross the island were unified as they worked together. Additionally,they used the same style of pottery, houses and several otherproducts.
Grinsellpoints out that in other previous centuries, this kind of regionalismwas not in existence, and that it was different to the othercenturies` regionalism (14). He further noted that the monument was abig undertaking, which required an astounding number of laborers tomove stones. The gravels were to be moved from faraway lands such asthe West Wales. Also, they were to shape the rocks and erect them aswell and all these actions required all of them to support oneanother in unity so that they could successfully finish the work.Evidently, a lot of work, support and integration were required, andthat`s one of the reasons for the creation of the monument.
Anotherreason for its inception was for it to be a clock, which showed notonly the solstices` time but also the lunar and sun eclipses (Thom,Archibald and Alexander 19). This point`s validation is that themonument was placed northeast-southwest. Therefore, on a morning inthe midsummer, the sun would rise very close to the stone of theheel, and the first rays of the sun would be viewed in the middle ofthe headstone, between the arms of the arrangement, which wasshoe-like.
HowStonehenge was built
Inabout 2500 BC, the stones were erected at the monument`s center. Thepeople who built the monument used two kinds of rocks, namely thesmaller bluestones and the larger sarsens. These particular sarsenswere out up in two concentric arrangements, which comprised of anouter-circle as well as an inner horseshoe. Furthermore, thebluestones were erected between the outer circle and inner horseshoein a second arc (Hetherington 160). In this instance, when the stoneswere being built at the monument`s Centre, the four station stones onthe periphery, as well as the sarsens, which were near the entrance,were elevated.
Approximately300 or 200 years later, there was a rearrangement in a bid to createa circle as well as an inner oval that was altered again to create ahorseshoe shape. Additionally, there was a creation of the earthworkAvenue, which connected river Avon with the Stonehenge. Anothershocking structure was that the lintels were ideally horizontal,despite the fact that there was a mild slope of the ground. Thelaborers directly adapted techniques of carpentry.
Thepeople who built the monument showcased their features because of theactivities they used to do. Some showed reverence for death, whileothers showed their sense of responsibility in the way they wereentirely dedicated to building Stonehenge. Another group of peopleshowed reverence for circles and symmetry, and all of them had anagricultural economy. The monument was built in a bid to show unity,and so that it could be a clock, which foretold time. Notably, themonument was also of spiritual significance, in the sense that peopletraveled long distances just for religious reasons. Considering allthe particulars of the memorial, it is an ideal creation of bothcreativity and passion, and that is what fascinates people so much.
Bradley,Richard. "Ritual, time and history." WorldArchaeology 23.2(2011): 209-219.
Grinsell,Leslie V. "The legendary history and folklore ofStonehenge." Folklore 87.1(2006): 5-20.
Hetherington,Kevin. "The utopies of social ordering—Stonehenge as a museumwithout walls." TheSociological Review 43.S1(2013): 153-176.
Thom,Alexander, Archibald Stevenson Thom, and Alexander Strang Thom."Stonehenge as a possible lunar observatory." Journalfor the History of Astronomy 6(2005): 19.
Worthington,Andy. Stonehenge:Celebration and subversion.Heart of Albion, (2004): 3-11.