Science,Philosophy and Sociology
Scienceis the study and comprehension of the natural phenomenon. It isconcerned with some empirical data that can be observed and tested.It is systematic in nature and bases its explanations and argumentson experiments and observable facts. Philosophy is concerned with theassessment and justification of human morals and values (Cavallo133). A methodological consensus is not present in philosophy.However, there is a form of methodological consensus among thescientists. Epistemology in philosophy is mainly from perceptions,reasoning, introspection and testimony. On the other hand, scientificknowledge is derived from observation and experiments.
Duringthe industrial revolution, individuals abandoned the agriculturallife and moved to urban centers as a result creating social problems.Comte, one of the sociologists by then, came to a conclusion that theexisting sciences like the political and history could not clearlyexplain the chaos and upheaval. He stated that a new approach wasneeded terming it as sociology. He derived this from a Latin wordsociuswhich meant companion (Ready 382). It was established by somephilosophers, thinkers, and economists who brought new ideas and inthe process criticizing the existing ones. Great thinkers like AdamSmith, JamesBurnett, William Robertson, Voltaire, Adam Ferguson, among othersenlightened people in the society. They formeda movement and developed a scientific study regarding the manner inwhich humans behaved during the ancient times. They did this with agreat awareness of some of the determining modernity forces whichconsequently gave rise to the modern sociology. The two enlightenmentphilosophies were the Montesquieu and the Rousseau. They are similarin that the two sought to apply science to social reforms. Theytreated governments as conditional. They also applied the criterionof the society and the nature to decide the kind of government to beformed. The Montesquieu enlightenment philosophy, advocated for aform of government that ensured separation of powers. Under thisphilosophy, there was call for the establishment of a state thatfavor the population size. On the other hand, the Rousseauenlightenment philosophy advocated for a form of government thatwould only combine equality and liberty.
Themanner in which these enlightenment philosophies led to the emergenceof sociology was that they attempted to change the structure of thesociety. They enabled those who professed them to wipe away thesocial distinctions that were there between the feudal society andthe people. These philosophies were source of critical ideas, forinstance, democracy and centrality freedom. They also challenged thetraditions as well as the prevailing world conceptions and guidedpeople to stop following the opinions of government and churchleaders.
Thethree sociological perspectives include symbolic interactionism,functionalism and the conflict theory (Rock 47). These threeperspectives are used to evaluate the society. Under symbolicinteractionism, the focus is on physical interaction as well as theuse of symbols. Functionalism focuses on the relationship betweenvarious categories of the society, that is, the way societal aspectscan be adapted. The conflict theory focuses on the competition forthe rare resources, that is, the way the elite control those who areweak and poor. The level of analysis of symbolic interactionism ismicro while that of functionalism and conflict theory is a macroapproach. Similarly, all the three share a theoretical correspondenceof dependency. They assign interdependence of the society on ascribedcommunication. Sociological theories help in social research in thatthey explain and predict the association between various variables.
Ahypothesis is a proposed explanation that is developed on the basisof the little evidence at the initial stage prior to conducting athorough research. It may also be regarded as an educated guess.Examples of such is by presuming that if a prisoner is subjected tosome training while in rehabilitation centers he or she is lesslikely to commit another crime upon completing the jail term.Operational is a term used to describe something that is ready foruse. Operationalization is the procedure used to define variables. Itexplains some fuzzy concepts that enhance measurement, quantitativelyas well as empirically. Measurement, as a noun, may be regarded asthe size, length of something or the amount. It is also the actionof measuring something. It is also referred to as the system ofmeasuring. Inductive reasoning is a logical process whereby severalbeliefs, whether true or most of the times found to be factual, arecombined to form a specific conclusion. It is mostly used when makingpredictions and forecasting (Singmann and Karl 247). Deductive, onthe other hand, is whereby a conclusion is derived from a concordanceof several beliefs generally assumed to be correct.
Cavallo,Andrew M. "Two Key Differences between Science and Philosophy."Metaphilosophy45.1(2014): 133-135. Print.
Ready,Kathryn. "Inspiration in the Age of Enlightenment."EighteenthCentury Fiction28.2 (2015): 381-384. Print.
Rock,Paul. Makingof Symbolic Interactionism.New York Springer, 2016. Print.
Singmann,Henrik, and Karl Christoph Klauer. "Deductive and InductiveConditional Inferences: Two Modes of Reasoning." Thinking& Reasoning17.3 (2011): 247-281. Print.