SustainableWaste Reduction Methods
Sustainabledevelopment is a concept that means propagation of economic progressand taking care of the environment. Neglecting the environmentalissues often leads to may problems such as diseases. This studyexplores the implementation of the concept of sustainablewaste reduction methodsin various regions and uses a logical framework to assess the data.Many literature reviews confirm the importance of the implementationof the sustainability ideology to tackle the problem of environmentalchallenges.
SustainableWaste Reduction in the United States
Theconcept Sustainable Economic Development means balancing currentdevelopment while considering the environmental sustainability(Williams,2013).It also implies the balancing between the current needs and those ofthe future generations. The United Nations adopted this perspectiveas its main agenda because it is important to consider thegenerations to come in the sustainability and the continuation of thehuman race (Harris& Roach, 2013).The climatic changes in the globe that caused global warming are themain factors that prompted to the adoption of the idea (Wheeler& Beatley, 2014).The international council on climate change stated that there is theneed of developing immediate interventions to counter the currentlevels of climatic changes. Otherwise, it would result in thedestruction or permanent harm to the ecosystems (Ciegis,Ramanauskiene & Martinkus, 2015).
Thecurrent times are marked by high levels of economic progress whichimplies that nations are achieving a status of efficiency inexploiting their resources (Barbier,2012).The production process of the industries takes the primary blame ofthe deterioration of the global climate (Mudakkar,Zaman, Khan & Ahmad, 2013).By inventing technology, people thought that they had reached thefull capacity of exploiting the environment, but today, nature isfighting back and even threatening the existence of men(Bojö,Mäler & Unemo, 2013).Today there is increased awareness about the need for sustainableeconomic development (Williams,2013).
TheUnited Nations and other environmental organizations are championingfor the implementation of the concept of sustainable development(Mudakkar,Zaman, Khan & Ahmad, 2013).It means that all the development plans will be made withconsideration to the environmental impacts. Many environmentaltreaties have been signed by several countries while other agreementssuch as the Kyoto protocol of the year 2012, were signed by all themembers of the United Nations except U.S.A., Sudan &Afghanistan(Barbier,2012).These treaties not only serve as agreements but also as regulationfactors for conducting some activities such as the prohibition ofconstruction near water sources.
Thesustainable waste reduction calls for the minimization in the use offossil fuels as they are one of the leading causes of global warming.Many undeveloped countries use wood as their fuel which means thattheir tree cover is not spared. Consequently, there is a lot ofclimatic changes and spread of deserts into the previously productiveareas (Portney,2013).Some sources of power that are encouraged with sustainabledevelopment include the renewable sources of energy such as solarpower, hydraulic energy, and the windmills (Kolstad& Ulph, 2011).The use of fossil fuels such as oil and gasoline leads to theemission of carbon to the air which eventually leads to increase inthe earth temperatures (Williams,2013).Some countries have experienced dire consequences of global warmingthan others. For instance, United States has experienced verycatastrophic events such as the hurricane Katrina and numeroustornados that have been quite destructive (Williams,2013).Global warming leads to the rise of ocean levels through the meltingof the polar ice and dire climate changes follow.
Theaim of this investigation is to probe the factors that contribute orhinder the process of sustainable waste reduction and how useful theconcept in alleviating the environmental problems. It also assessesthe levels of compliance of various countries with the concept andother environmental rules. The high levels of economic developmentsshould be catalyzed further and checked to ensure they do not lead toenvironmental degradation (Bojö,Mäler & Unemo, 2013).Therefore, the study also aims to look how the concept of continueddevelopment may contribute to economic growth.
Inhis study, Portney (2013) states that many of the large cities haveadopted some form of sustainability techniques, though very fewcross-regional or theoretical comparison of the types of initiativestaken have been made. Portney focuses on the concept ofsustainability aiming to address the gap. The research provides anintegrated background check and efficiently analyses thecompatibility and performance of the intervention programs in theAmerican urban places. Portney explores the computation ofsustainability by offering a measure of sustainability for 55 of thelargest cities in U.S. The study analyzes how the concept is relatedto economic growth and explores the idea of ideal growth rates thatwould ensure a minimal effect on the environmental degradation. Thebook investigates the present policies which concern environmentalconservation and the levels of implementation among the variouscities. The book states how the cities use the broad concept ofsustainability to meet certain political goals. This book isimportant as it provides a framework that is useful in implementingthe sustainability plans. It also gives detailed case studies thattry to explain why some cities have more ambitious sustainabilityplans than others.
Asurvey carried out by Wheeler & Beatley (2014) utilizes a broadrange of both the contemporary and classical studies that provide acomprehensive introduction to the topic. The research traces thedevelopment of the concept of sustainable development to thenineteenth and twentieth century and then highlights somesustainability concepts. The study explores some concepts such as theuse of land, the types of urban designs, the transportinfrastructure, environmental planning, and rehabilitation. Theinvestigation identifies some of the factors that result in poorenvironmental conditions and hinder the process of sustainable urbandevelopment which includes the sources of energy and the types ofmaterials used such as the widespread use of plastics. The studyexplores the socio-economic factors and how they affect the processof sustainable development. Some aspects that support thesustainability process such as environmental justice, greenarchitecture, and building plans are studied together with themethods for sustainable growth, the international strategies,visions, and case studies. This study provides an educationalexercise for the reader which helps in assessing the conceptsdiscussed in the survey. The study avails to the public a wide arrayof sustainable urban planning information in an accessible format.This data is necessary for designing the future urban environments.
Kolstad& Ulph (2011) analyzed the development of internationalenvironmental treaties under uncertainty concerning environmentaldegradation using both the complete and the partial learning models.The findings of the research are negative because the learning modelsapplied minimize the potential levels of universal welfare that wouldhave been derived if the development process of the treaties had notadopted a learning model. According to the study, uncertainty is acommon factor among all nations while the damages in differentcountries do not have any correlation due to the uncertainty aboutparticular parameters. This study is important as it demonstratesthat there are always variations in the effects of environmentalproblems in different countries.
Forthis study, I applied both the qualitative and quantitativetechniques to review the data. The combination of the two approachesis helpful in expounding on the various concepts and information inthe study. While the qualitative methods mainly serve to explaindata, the quantitative methods provide the supporting information anda deeper analysis of a concept (Williams,2013).The study uses a logical framework to collect secondary data which iswidely and easily available. Use of secondary data has an advantageover the other data collection methods as it provides excellentscores of information in a cheap and readily accessible manner(Barbier,2012).
Sustainablegrowth concept aims at satisfying the needs of the presentgenerations without issuing any threat to the future generations. Itmeans supporting the current populations’ needs through efficientexploitation of resources but at the same time while considering thewellbeing of the future generations and minimizing the production ofharmful waste products. It means arranging the social, technical andecological resources in a manner that equilibrium is achievable(Antimiani,Costantini, Markandya, Martini, Palma, & Tommasino, 2014). Sustainable growth is a concept that allows the exploitation ofresources in a planned manner to minimize the wastage and depletionof some essential resources such as the water catchment areas andfertile farming lands.
Sustainablewaste disposal, http://www.sustainability-perspectives.com/
Thesystems and information theory provides a framework that can be usedto conduct a qualitative analysis of the concept of economicdevelopment. It states that development is the long-term systemchanges due to increased network organization (Barbier,2012).All the systems have both the structural and quantitative aspectswhich adapt to the new environmental characteristics. The theory canbe efficient in understanding how the human populations and theinstitutions have changed their views about the environment due tothe evident environmental hazards facing them. The graph aboveindicates the predicted increase in the rates of emissions over thecoming few years. The theory also helps the scholars to understandhow various institutions and systems influence the implementation ofthe concept of sustainable economic growth. It can assist todetermine whether the societal institutions propagate or hinder theprocess of achieving balanced growth.
Itis important to balance both the growth levels and environmentalsustainability to enhance continued productivity for sustenance andto promote a healthy living environment. It means that the harmfulproduction methods and practices such as deforestation should behighly discouraged and the adoption of a green economy should bepropagated. Many institutions, both governmental and non-governmentalare spearheading the campaign to adopt the environmental friendlypractices (Go& Govers, 2012).
Thegraph above indicates that creating some incentives for recycling mayactually have a positive effect in encouraging the residents to adoptsuch sustainable mechanisms. Many technologies have been that reducethe depletion of the environmental resources while other seek forbetter alternatives than the natural resources. Many countries thathad their focus more on development than on growth are today facingmany challenges concerning their environmental conditions. Growthwould be meaningless if the people cannot enjoy the benefits of itand only suffer from the processes associated with it (Lloyd& Rakodi, 2014).A degrading environment can have a lot of negative impacts on theprocess of growth as some conditions such as diseases will be rampantaffecting many people hence the general productivity of thepopulation will be small (Portney,2013).
Manyof the organizations such as the European Union adopted the conceptof sustainable waste reduction in all their activities and it isreflected in many of the treaties of Rome (Barbier,2012).Some of the indicators of the sustainable economic growth include astable production and consumption that prevents over-exploitation ofresources because demand is limited to the number of the users of aproduct (Lloyd& Rakodi, 2014).There is emphasis on the use of products that are environmentalfriendly and the minimization of the usage of harmful products suchas the plastic bags which do not easily decompose. Sustainable growthwould lead to improved living standards as well as social inclusionwhich would open up opportunities for many individuals within thesociety.
Someof the recently developed measures used to gauge sustaineddevelopment include the human development index (Wheeler& Beatley, 2014).This test is rated on a scale of zero to ten. It is used to indicateknowledge, longevity and exploitation of the resources which arenecessary for attaining a decent life. The United Nations used thisapproach analyzing survival through the life expectancy of apopulation, and per-capita GDP to test on the exploitation ofresources while knowledge was explained via adult literacy and theaverage number of schooling years (Ciegis,Ramanauskiene & Martinkus, 2015).Through this approach, the organization could assess thesustainability issues of a nation. For instance, high life expectancycan be attributed to the adequate supply of healthcare services aswell as life quality standards which indicate adequate, sustainabledevelopment for the nation.
Sustainablewaste reduction is an important concept that stems from therecognition of the need to take care of the environments in which welive. Otherwise, people may suffer a lot due to neglecting theirlandscape. Many studies have been conducted, and their findings areconsistent with the need for sustainable development in any nation(Kolstad& Ulph, 2011 Barbier, 2012).Many organizations such as the United Nations and the European Unionhave adopted this concept after the realization that there is theneed for maintaining high levels of economic growth as well asenvironmental conservation initiatives. It is necessary to maintainclean surroundings for the sake of the future generations (Portney,2013).
Antimiani,A., Costantini, V., Markandya, A., Martini, C., Palma, A., &Tommasino, M. C. (2014). Green growth and sustainability: Analysingtrade-offs in climate change policy options. SeedsWorking Paper, 17,2014.
Barbier,E. (Ed.). (2012). Economicsand ecology: New frontiers and sustainable development. Springer Science & Business Media.
Bojö,J., Mäler, K. G., & Unemo, L. (2013). Environmentand development: an economic approach (Vol.6). Springer Science & Business Media.
Ciegis,R., Ramanauskiene, J., & Martinkus, B. (2015). The concept ofsustainable development and its use for sustainabilityscenarios.EngineeringEconomics, 62(2).
Go,F. M., & Govers, R. (2012). InternationalPlace Branding Yearbook 2012: Managing Smart Growth andSustainability.Palgrave Macmillan.
Harris,J. M., & Roach, B. (2013). Environmentaland natural resource economics: A contemporary approach.ME Sharpe.
Kolstad,C. D., & Ulph, A. (2011). Uncertainty, learning and heterogeneityin international environmental agreements. Environmentaland Resource Economics, 50(3),389-403.
Lloyd-Jones,T., & Rakodi, C. (2014). Urbanlivelihoods: A people-centred approach to reducing poverty.Routledge.
Mudakkar,S. R., Zaman, K., Khan, M. M., & Ahmad, M. (2013). Energy foreconomic growth, industrialization, environment and naturalresources: living with just enough. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25,580-595.
Portney,K. E. (2013). Takingsustainable cities seriously: Economic development, the environment,and quality of life in American cities.MIT Press.
Wheeler,S. M., & Beatley, T. (2014). SustainableUrban Development Reader.Routledge.
Williams,P. T. (2013). Wastetreatment and disposal.John Wiley & Sons.