TheDecline of the Roman Empire
Many scholars argue that the Roman Empire didn’t actually fall. Rather, it transformed due to the pressure of immigration from the other parts of Europe (Ward-Perkins & Heather, 2005). This transformation didn’t happen overnight. The “barbarian populations” were accommodated in the Roman economic and political structures. This led to the creation of successor states throughout 450-500 AD. These new states lacked the “central authority structure” of the Roman Empire. Eventually the Roman Empire lost a significant portion of its territory, and succumbed in the end.
The Byzantine Empire was a lot more successful than the Western part of Rome. While that part fell due to the immigrant pressure and the creation of successor states, the Eastern part of Rome, or the Byzantine lasted for more than 1000 years, thwarting the invasions by the Muslims and Europeans from other parts of the continent. The wealth and security setting of the Byzantine Empire was so strong that it managed to survive for that long as the continuation of the Roman Empire (Nicol, 2016).
The fall of Rome saw the rise of three things in Western Europe: Byzantium, Islam, and post-imperial Western Europe (Gillett, 2012). The Roman Empire declined and gave birth to several other territories ruled mostly by German immigrants. The Byzantine Empire managed to defend itself for a very long time, and Islam spread widely in Western Europe.
The Great Schism, also known as the East–West Schism was the break of affinity between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches in 1054. It lasted till the 11th century. The main causes of this schism were disagreements over contradictory claims of authority and power regarding Christianity.
The fall of the Roman Empire decentralized this part of Europe andworsened the economic and political influence of the continent. Itgave birth to many successor kingdoms by the barbarians- the Franksin most parts of Gaul, the Spanish visigoths, the Britishanglo-saxons, the Italian ostrogoths etc. Civilization relapsed inmany ways in Eastern and Western Europe. Literacy rate declined,trade and commerce reduced, the rate of urbanization andinfrastructural developments dropped greatly. It gave rise to manyloose-knit kingdoms with inapt kings and princes.
Gillett, A. (2012). 07.10.12, Review Article:Rome`s Fall and Europe`s Rise. TheMedieval Review. Retrieved fromhttps://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/tmr/article/view/16453/22571
Nicol, D. (2016). ByzantineEmpire, Part One. History-world.org.Retrieved 7 October 2016, from http://history-world.org/Byzatines.htm
Ward-Perkins, B. & Heather, P. (2005). TheFall of Rome – an author dialogue. OUPblog.Retrieved 7 October 2016, fromhttp://blog.oup.com/2005/12/the_fall_of_rom/