The Effects of Pregnancy Prevention Programs on Teenagers` Sexual Behaviors and Outcomes Student`s

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TheEffects of Pregnancy Prevention Programs on Teenagers’ SexualBehaviors and Outcomes

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TheEffects of Pregnancy Prevention Programs on Teenagers’ SexualBehaviors and Outcomes

Populationand Sampling

Thisstudy will seek to determine the effects of pregnancy preventionprograms on teenagers’ sexual behaviors and outcomes among studentsin grade school. The target population for this research will beseventh graders enrolled in four middle schools located in Fairfax,Virginia. These schools will be selected randomly from a list of allschools located in this area. The prevention program used in thestudy will be housed in three of the middle schools while thecomparison group will be located at a nearby middle school. The studypopulation will, therefore, be arranged into experimental and controlgroups with a minimum of 1000 students expected to join the study.These students will be selected randomly from each of the fourschools. As such, this research will employ a stratified randomsampling technique[ CITATION Oli10 l 1033 ].

Therewill be no specific set of criteria that will be used to determinestudents who will be eligible to take part in the study. Informedconsent will be obtained from both the students and their parents toensure that ethical standards are upheld (Rose et al. 2014). Afterthe subjects have been selected, they will be group into theexperimental and control groups using the systematic samplingtechnique. First, the students will be listed from 1 to 1000.Afterward, the 5th, 15th, 25th to the 995th student will be selectedto join the control group. As such, the control group will be made upof 100 participants while the experimental will be composed of 900students.

StudyVariables

Thisstudy will be qualitative in design and will, therefore, utilizequalitative dependent variables as well[ CITATION Oli10 l 1033 ].These dependent variables will include self-affirmation, love asjustification, sex for approbation, personal efficacy, futureorientation, and independence from peers. Self-affirmation willexplore the strong commitment of the participants to remain abstinentuntil marriage. Love for justification will describe the thinkingthat it is okay to engage in sex with a serious boy/girlfriend. Sexfor approbation will explore the need for teenagers to have sex withtheir boy/girlfriends to show how much they care about them. Personalefficacy will measure the capacity of the teenagers to turn downsexual encounters even when they are in the mood. Future orientationwill determine how teenagers think about the effect of sex on theirstudies. Finally, independence from peer influence will measure theability of the students to make the right decisions regarding sexeven if doing so will cost them some friends. These variables will bemeasured pre- and post-test to determine how they are affected by theintervention program.

Thetwo primary independent variables that will be used for the study aregender and race. Gender will particularly be important in comparingthe teenage sexual traits and outcomes of boys and girls. As much asgirls are the ones implicated in teen pregnancies, it will also becrucial to determine the role of boys in this phenomenon[ CITATION Tho12 l 1033 ].Furthermore, it will be critical to compare nd contrast the responseof boys and girls to the prevention program. On the other hand,racial differences regarding teen sexuality will help to highlightthe influence of cultural values and norms on teenage sexualbehavior. The racial findings from this study will then be comparedto those obtained by Farber (2014). According to Farber (2014), 50%of girls from Black and Hispanic communities are likely to becomepregnant before they reach 20 years.

Measures

Thedependent variables listed above will be measured using an interviewschedule or guide that will consist of a list of structured questionsfor each variable. These questions are presented in the table below.

Table1: Measures

Variable

Measure

Self-affirmation

Do you have a strong commitment to remain abstinent until marriage?

Love as justification

Is it okay for you to have sex with a serious boy/girlfriend?

Sex for approbation

Is having sex the best way for you to show your boy/girlfriend that you really care about him/her?

Personal efficacy

Can you say “no” to engaging in sexual intercourse with your boy/girlfriend even when you are in the mood?

Future orientation

Do you think that engaging in sex as a teenager would make it difficult for you to focus on your studies or stay in school in the future?

Independence from peer pressure

Is it important for you to make the right decisions regarding sex even if it means losing some of your friends?

Thesemeasures will provide valuable information regarding the attitudes ofthe students towards teenage sexual relations. These measures will beconducted before and after the interventional program to assess itseffect on these attitudes. Most importantly, these attitudes will becompared and contrasted across gender and racial divides. Thiscomparison will help to point out the different gender and racialfactors that promote or inhibit teenage sex and pregnancies[ CITATION Tho12 l 1033 ].

References

Farber, N. (2014). The Not-So-Good News about Teenage Pregnancy. Society, 51(3), 282-287. Doi: 10.1007/s12115-014-9777-y.

Oliver, P. (2010). Understanding the research process. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Rose, I., Prince, M., Flynn, S., Kershner, S., &amp Taylor, D. (2014). Parental support for teenage pregnancy prevention programmes in South Carolina public middle schools. Sex Education, 14(5), 510-524.

Thomas, C., &amp Dimitrov, D. (2012). Effects of a teen pregnancy prevention program on teens` attitudes toward sexuality: A latent trait modeling approach. Developmental Psychology, 43(1), 173-85. Doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.173 .

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