TreatingManic Depression with Lithium
Manicdepression, or, in other words, bipolar disorder, is an illness thataffects people all over the world (Lippincott,2012, p. 621).Consequently, the use of mood stabilizers has grown significantly.These medications, however, have long-term and acute effects on theirusers, and, have been reported to have prophylactic effects ondepressive or manic diseases. Lithium is a common prescription drugfor patients suffering from bipolar disorders (Birch,2012, p. 2).The Lithium ion inhibits, directly, two signal transduction trails,and transmits inositol triphosphate (Lippincott,2012, p. 621).As a result, the depletion of intracellular glycogen synthasekinase-3 and intracellular inositol is triggered. Various GSK-3substitutes are usually involved in the neuronal organization andfunction, and, thus, present likely targets for manic disorders.Nonetheless, the manner in which the modifications in inositoltriphosphate trigger the development of bipolar disorder has not beensuccessfully documented. Lithium has been applied as a prescriptiondrug by the people that suffer from manic episodes for an extendedperiod.
Lithiumcompetes with calcium, sodium, magnesium, and potassium ions atintercellular strapping and transport sites, at protein surfaces, atsugar phosphates, and carrier binding sites (Lippincott,2012, p. 622).The compound moves through sodium channels, and, in highconcentrations, blocks the pathways of potassium. John Cade, in the1940s, discovered that Lithium could be used to treat manicdepression. After administering the drug to rats, Cade tried it onhumans. His experiment revealed that Lithium not only brings down thesymptoms of mania but also prevents the recurrence of depression whenregularly ingested. Subsequent trials of the drug resulted in itsapproval, by the FDA, in 1970. Lithium Carbonate (or Eskalith) isthe salt that is utilized in treating manic depression. The medicinehas been used to treat and prevent depression and manic episodes in70% to 80% of the victims that suffer from bipolar disorder. Themajority of the people that respond to Lithium do not respond toTCAs.
Inaddition to the above, inositol (or myo-inositol) is a naturallyoccurring glucose isomer (Lippincott,2012, p. 621).It is also a primary intermediary of the phosphatidylinositolsignaling pathway, which is the second messenger structure that theserotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic receptors use. Thesupposition that Lithium could treat mania, through the reduction ofinositol levels, resulted in the growth of experiments that revealedthat oral doses of Lithium led to the reversal of behavioral impactsin animals, and, by extension, the effect that the drug has onpeople. In most cases, the cerebrospinal fluids of inositol areinsufficient in the people that suffer from depression. A studyrevealed that massive doses of inositol (12 g) resulted in asignificant increase of cerebrospinal fluids in depression sufferersby 70% this led to a notable improvement in the patients that sufferfrom the ailment, compared to placebo (Severuset al., 2014).Also, Lithium has fewer side effects than other mood stabilizers.Compared to fluvoxamine, Lithium brings down the number of panicattacks significantly, and, is not linked to the tiredness and nauseathat the people who use fluvoxamine feel (Lippincott,2012, p. 621).
Ina recap of the above discussion, Lithium has been used as aprescription drug by the people that suffer from manic diseases foran extended period. Manic depression is a global concern. As aresult, the utilization of mood stabilizers has developedsignificantly. However, these medications have been documented tohave long-term and acute effects on their users. Lithium has fewerside effects and is more effective, compared to other forms of drugs,as discussed above.
Birch,N. (2012). Lithiumand the cell: Pharmacology and Biochemistry (2nded., p. 2). London: Academic Press.
Lippincott,W. (2012). Foye`sprinciples of medicinal chemistry, 7th ed. + a practical guide tocontemporary pharmacy .. (p.621). Wolters Kluwer Health.
Severus,E., Taylor, M., Sauer, C., Pfennig, A., Ritter, P., Bauer, M., &Geddes, J. (2014). Lithium for prevention of mood episodes in bipolardisorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. IntJ Bipolar Disord, 2(1).http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40345-014-0015-8