Unionized Response to workplace bullying Can Collective Barganing serve as a solution to workplace bullying?

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UnionizedResponse to workplace bullying: Can Collective Barganing serve as asolution to workplace bullying?

WorkplaceBullying and collective bargaining: A qualitative Analysis

ArvenA. Knight

Schoolof Business and Graduate Studies

TrinityWashington University

Submittedto Dr. Kelley Wood on behalf of the faculty of the School of Businessand Graduate Studies in partial fulfillment of the degreerequirements for the Masters of Science in Administration in HumanResources Management

Fall 2016

Summary/Abstract

Tobe completed as the last section of my paper as noted by Dr. KelleyWood.

Theauthor acknowledges completed this assignment in the spirit of theTrinity Washington University policy regarding academic honesty andplagiarism.

Tableof Contents

Page

Introduction 6

Statement of the Problem 6

Objective 6

Research Questions 6

Research question one (quantitative version) 6

Research question two (qualitative version) 6

Research Design 6

Participants 6

Assumptions and Limitations 7

Theory 8

Theoretical Perspective 8

Theoretical Framework (quantitative) 8

LMX Theory 8

Awarenes 8

Resources 8

Personality 8

Rank 8

Moderating variables 8

Theoretical Construct (qualitative) 9

Social learning theory 9

Access 9

Price 9

Role Models 9

Peer Pressure 9

Analysis 11

Sample 11

Data Analysis and Coding (quantitative) 13

Reliability 13

Research question 1 13

Research question 2 14

Multiple regressions 16

Data Analysis and Coding (qualitative) 17

Trustworthiness 17

Primary level coding 17

Secondary level of coding 18

Triangulation 19

Discussion 21

Research Questions 21

Research question one. (quantitative version) 21

Research question two. (qualitative version) 21

Conclusions 21

Recommendations 21

Implications. 21

Summary 21

References 22

Appendices 24

Appendix A: Recruitment Materials 24

Appendix B: Informed Consent 25

Appendix C: Data Collection Instrument 27

Listof Tables

Page

Table 1. Frequency: Year of birth. 11

Table 2. Frequency: Gender. 11

Table 3. Frequency: Race. 12

Table 4. Crosstabulations: Future as a volunteer. 13

Table 5. Correlations: Social media fundraising * How you would give. 13

Table 6. Independent sample group statistics for young alumni giving. 14

Table 7. Independent samples t- tests for young alumni giving. 14

Table 8. Crostabulations: My future as a volunteer 2 15

Table 9. Correlations: social media fundraising * How would you give 2 15

Table 10. Independent sample group statistics for young alumni giving. 16

Table 11. Independent samples t- tests for young alumni giving. 16

Table 12. Model Summary BA 16

Table 13. ANOVA BA 16

Table 14. Coefficients BA 17

Table 15. Examples of the taxonomy development. 18

Table 16. Category development. 18

Table 17. Meta codes: The three aspects of Latina women`s culture. 19

Listof Figures

Page

Figure 1. The theoretical model of teenagers who choose not to use synthetic marijuana. 9

Figure 2. The theoretical model of teenagers who choose not to use synthetic marijuana. 10

Figure 3. Examples of the axial coding comparing the relationships of categories. 19

Research has shown that most workplaces have some sort of bullyingaspects and the issue is whether unions can handle it or not. Humanresources and management play a significant role at helping toidentify and cease it. In order for management to address bullying,the vice must first be brought to their attention. Unfortunately,this never happens in many cases. Co-worker conflict has been themain source of workplace bullying even if the bully is not in anyform of conflict with the victim. Being bullied can create numerousissues in someone’s life. “Ceasefrom anger and forsake wrath do not fret it leads only to evildoing(Psalm 37:8). Moreover, recognizing someone who is abully may not be obvious.

According to Limpscomb, London et.,al., (2015), Bullying is said tohave taken place when an abusive conduct is repeatedly perpetratedand when the sufferer encounters difficulties in defending themselvesin a situation (p.4.) It is not bullying if the incident does notoccur repeatedly. According to Crow (2015), subtle bullying can gounnoticed and lead to many disagreeable factors within the workplace(Crow (2015, p.1). There are office policies in place to helpemployees thrive and feel comfortable in the workplace and toeliminate any form of distress. Unfortunately, regardless of theunion’s presence, employees are still threatened and intimidatedthrough bullying. After the initial start of harassment, it canquickly become a trend. There are issues that can become a problemfor the individual that is bullied and the acts can have aninsightful impact on the person(s) overall attitude, health, mental,physical morale and the outlook of the environment as a whole. Thepurpose of this study is to investigate how bullying affectsindividuals in the work place and what management and collectivebargaining can do to combat it. The research will be conducted usingqualitative approach. Results after analyzing the data will show howbullying affects it employees and the union’s role at combating itor not. There will be in-person interviews to gather data on theeffects of bullying in the workplace and what the union can do tostop this from occurring. The outcome of this study shall determinewhether management, employees, and union personnel will have a betterinsight on how bullying can impact an employee’s personal andprofessional life inside and outside of the workplace.

Keywords: Bullying,physical impact, mental impact: low morale, workplace and, collectivebargaining and management.

Statement of the problem

Recentstudies have shown that most workplaces have both employee toemployee and management bullying. Moreover, studies have shown thatbullying can have a profound impact on someone’s life. Some of theissues that arise from bullying can reduce productivity of anindividual both personally and professionally. According to Verkuiland Mark (2015), being bullied can lead to various disordersincluding anxiety and depression (p.2). Furthermore, workplacebullying has been recognized as a main source of distress that causeshealth related issues. The overall effect is tied to low jobsatisfaction and productivity.

However,little has been done to combat or prevent bullying from occurring inthe first place. In the Washington, DC local government, there arepolicies, and practices, such as unions and anti-harassment policiesin place to protect and serve employees’ needs especially in theaspect of management. Bullying can have various negative impacts on aperson and the workplace as a whole. Equally, being bullied canaffect the productivity and the morale in the workplace.

Significanceof Study

Thesignificance of the study is to see what the effectiveness of themeasures in place to stop bullying. Also, the information might helporganizations better deal with matters related to proper management.For instance, if there is really a significant effect of bullying onemployees mentally, professionally, and personally, then theorganization(s) can reevaluate their current policies on bullying orput some new ones in place as an amendment to the current ones. Secondly, the organization’s management can work better withcollective bargaining at trying to eradicate bullying in theworkplace. If at all possible, the two teams need to come togetherfor this reason. It is very important that organizations and unionsbecome aware of how many employees experience bullying in theworkplace and what kind of devastation it may cause to the workplaceenvironment and the person’s life. Nonetheless the findings of thestudy will be useful for both the management and the unions of theorganization.

ResearchQuestions

Everydaysomeone is bullied in the workplace and for that reason somethinghas to be done about it. It is arguable that the one that is gettingbullied can stand up and defend himself rather than just sit thereand be tortured. For most, the bullying can happen in many waysother than verbal. There is help in many institutions such inunions. Thus, the question then becomes relevant: 1. Can the unionbe effective as a tool of handling bullying in the workplace? 2. Canbullying be solved without the union’s help?

Nullhypothesis 1.Workplace bullying can be controlled by collective bargaining.

Alternatehypothesis 1.Bullying is predisposed by individualistic characters.

Researchquestions (qualitative)

(RQ1):Doesbullying in workplace cause a profound impact on and employee’soverall perception of management and workplace?

(RQ2): Canthe union really have a positive impact oncombating bullying in the workplace?

ResearchDesign

Toget an answer to these questions, Ethnographies and Phenomenologywill be used. Also union members that are not available forin-person interviewing might be asked to answer question throughSurvey Monkey. The research questions will identify the factors thatcontribute to the theoretical construct. The researcher will useopen-ended questioning to facilitate the way the participants willlist their responses.

Participants

DCGovernment employees, union members, and public servant employees aregoing to be the targeted subjects because they are the primary focusof this research. The researcher will use Facebook to inviteparticipants into the study as an ice-breaker. A very small number ofthe participants may be interviewed over the telephone. Theparticipants will give the most accurate and detailed informationregarding bullying and what policies or practices are in place andwhat is being done to eradicate it in the workplace. The researcherplans to use 6-12 participants who are currently working with in theDC local government. Qualitative interviews will be in the form ofopen-ended questions to provoke the opinions of all participants(Creswell, 2014).

Assumptions and Limitations

Thereis much information related to bullying, unions and the workplace. However, the research will only be focusing on workers in the localGovernment in the DMV area. Due to the limited time of this study,keen focus on every aspect of bullying will be an important featureof this study. The interviews will show whether bullying is asignificant problem in the work place than is believed and whataffects are experienced from the bullying such as physical, mental,and social. Due to the length of the semester, time plays a majorfactor in getting the most and accurate information for this study.Open-ended questions and probing will be used to learn moreinformation from the participants for further study. Unstructuredquestions are offered because the researcher may not have a thoroughknowledge about a phenomenon that can help in asking straight forwardquestions regarding this topic.

Open-ended questions toinclude:

  1. When was the first moment that you were bullied at work?

  2. What are the steps you took?

Merriam (2009) definessemi-structured as bases between the informal and structuredinterviews and include multiple of mix or more or less structuredquestions. Below are examples of these types:

Did you report it to the unionor management?

Did you report the incident toanybody?

How did management respond?

TheoreticalConstruct

Aqualitative approach will help to develop a theoretical construct andit will show the effectiveness of programs related with bullying inthe workplace. A theoretical lens will guide the researcher toexamine bullying and the union programs in place. It will help bylooking at the effects of bullying and the types of programs to helpcombat it. By using a theoretical lens, it will allow the researcherto view the issue of bullying from several perspectives (Race,gender, union or nonunion and public service). Creswell, (2014)gives the definition of theoretical lens as one that is orients studyquestions related to race, class, and other issues of a particulargroup. In the Leader Member Exchange (LMX) theory explains thedevelopment of the leaders with exchanged relationships over a periodof time with other employees. The two main components of the LMXtheory show how individuals relate and how the relationship betweenthe leader and the employee strengthens or weakens an organization.They are measured in a high and low capacity. The low illustrates thelack of leadership, attention, communication and morale.

Ethicalconsiderations

Theresearcher will keep all identities and responses from the surveysconfidential. I will keep the research responses from the interviewsfor 2-3 years and dispose them off after the third year. They will beplaced in a fireproof box that is locked and kept in a secure place.Once the participant agrees to be a part of the study, a consent formwill either be handed from the researcher to the participant ordirectly emailed to the participants. They will then acknowledge thatthe results of the interview will not be shared with anyone otherthan the research superior. The participants will have theopportunity to refuse to participate in any phase of the studybecause participation is strictly voluntary. In a case theparticipant decides not to participate further in the study, he orshe will have the freedom to withdraw from the interview at any time.

(LMX)Theory

Therelationship between employees and the leader has the capacity toinfluence individuals’ behaviors and enable them change theiroppressive traits. This model has three principles that make itsuitable for the current study. First, it suggests that the highestscope of vision guided learning is attained by organizing followed bypracticing the behavior figuratively. Secondly, it notes that codinga modeled act leads to enhanced memory retention. Lastly, it pointsout that employees and their managers are more expected to implementa modeled character if they are aware of its useful value (Branchet al, 2007).

Awareness

Anindividual’s knowledge regarding government systems and unions thatspecialize in employee interests can determine if bullying thrives ornot. If the affected characters within an organization know of waysto airing their grievances, they will find it easy to handle thecases of biases and be able to fit in the groups (Creswell,2014).

Resources

Theavailability of financial resources cuts across every aspect ofemployee issues. First, the cost of registration into unions candetermine whether an employee will benefit from the mandates of aunion (Crow, 2015). Secondly, the price charged for legal procedureswhen one is faced with a bullying scenario may be a concernespecially if an individual is unable to raise the funds. Lastly,price as a factor of currency is an element when it comes to whatmakes one susceptible to bullying.

Personality

Sincebullying may be predisposed by nature, having vulnerable personalitymay influence one’s chances of being bullied. Moreover, one maychoose a behavior but fail to realize what makes his way of lifeadmirable in spite of its possible flaws (Crow, 2015). As a result,personality may feature as the foremost element in bullying andability to be intimidated.

Rank

Asan independent variable, an individual’s rank determines thecapacity of the oppressors. In other words, the domineeringindividuals may find it easy to intimidate their juniors as opposedto the members at the top. This further weakens the ability of thesufferer to self-protect (Creswell,2014).Moreover, even in the presence of effective unions, it may bedifficult for the oppressed to seek for help because of the fear offurther victimization.

Moderatingvariables

Asthe key moderating variable, time is considered as an importantfactor in monitoring behaviors. Time is required when there is theneed to make final decision regarding justice. Similarly, it isimportant to keep patience until the duration for expected behaviorchanges elapses. Secondly, the reputation and the identity of a unionwill influence its relevance and employee’s likelihood to join(Crow,2015).In this perspective, trust plays a major between unionized actionsand prosperity of bullying.

Figure1. The theoreticalmodel of WorkplaceBullying and collective bargaining

TheoreticalConstruct (qualitative Arven Knight)

Thefocal point is on the effects of bullying, management, and unions aswell as ways that management and collective bargaining can combatbullying. The majority of the research referenced here suggests thatthere are issues with bullying in the workplace and how managementand collective bargaining deals with it. Bullyingis most common against a subordinate by someone with power and title,yet it does not discriminate by rank. (Branch et al, 2007). Toexamine the experiences and impacts due to bullying, the researchertook a constructivist view on trying to determine and understandbullying within the local government in the DMV area. According toCreswell (2014), social constructivists hold that people desire tohave a better understanding of the environment in which they work(p.8).

Someindividual features of a victim could propagate the antecedent ofworkplace bullying. In reality, studies point out that the employeeswho undergo suffering at work tend to release it in various settingssuch as within relation, among family, and friends. This perspectiveof the link between personal experiences and workplace mistreatmenthas been a contentious matter because blaming the victims may resultin other problems. Until now, research on a character linked tooppression is not yet conclusive (Crow, 2015). The majority ofresearches conclude that a behavior disposed to the role of bully orvictim is nonexistent.

HHowever,other studies have tried to categorize some individual issues,including age, seniority, and gender, that may heighten theprobability of being the bully or victim. Absence or presence of suchfactors has great impact on the ratio of bullying (Verkuil and Mark,2015). Bullies may increase the frequency of their behavior or stopafter assessing the possible impact of their actions.

Oneof the primary issues that can be applied to study victimization atan individual scope is gender. Nevertheless, evidences of empiricalsurveys that have examined this facet do not appear to be conclusive.Therefore, most scholars have witnessed high frequencies ofintimidation among females, while others suggest that both gendersare similarly susceptible to being bullied at the place of work. Inview of the current research, it is of particular importance torelate workplace bullying and unionization to the study done byVerkuil and Mark (2015), which establishes that females inadministrative positions tend to be more susceptible to mistreatment(Verkuil and Mark, 2015). The authors assume that the predispositionis a factor of the common chauvinist outlooks that constrain careerwomen.PeerPressure

Peerpressure is another factor that can be looked at in terms of the roleof bullying. This has a major factor on how someone can be steeredinto to being a bully by other bullies looking onin the workplace.

Figure 1. The theorecticalframework of attributes that might have a positive or nagative affecton the union and nonunion employee and bullying programs in place ofwork.

Figure1. Above displays the studies theoretical construct and displayssupporting topics that impacts workplace bullying in the localgovernment.

Analysis

Describewhat you will accomplish in this chapter and how you will proceed.

Sample

Discusswho participated in your study. This section is written differentlyfor quantitative and qualitative studies, use the correct format.

Quantitativestudies often use frequency and or cross tabulation tables to developan aggregate (overall) understanding of the participants. Forexample,

Thedata was collected from a total of 95 participants, 64 female (67%),and 31 (33%) male. The participants were age 60 and above, and theyall resided in the Ward 5, Washington, DC Metropolitan Area. Of the95 participants, 58 (61%) were boomers and 37 (39%) traditionalists(see Tables 1-2). Ward 5 has an ethnicallydiverse group ofseniors. The racial breakdown of the participants was notrepresentative of the ethnic diversity of the population of Ward 5’sseniors. The breakdown of respondents was 92 (97%) African-American,2 Hispanic, and 1 American Indian (see Table 3). Also, of the 58boomers who took the survey, 37 (64%) own or have access to acomputer, 18 (31%) an iPad, and 32 (55%) a smartphone. This comparesto the 37 traditionalists who took the survey, of whom 11 (30%) ownor have access to a computer, 2 (5%) an iPad, and 5 (14%) asmartphone (see Tables 4-6). All participants completed the informedconsent form and the survey online and manually between the dates ofNovember 18 and November 24, 2014.

Table1. Frequency: Year ofbirth.

Frequency

%

Valid %

Cumulative %

Valid

Boomers

58

61.1

61.1

61.1

Traditionalists

37

38.9

38.9

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table2. Frequency: Gender.

Frequency

%

Valid %

Cumulative %

Valid

Female

64

67.4

67.4

67.4

Male

31

32.6

32.6

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Table3. Frequency: Race.

Frequency

%

Valid %

Cumulative %

Valid

African-American

92

96.8

96.8

96.8

Hispanic

2

2.1

2.1

98.9

American Indian

1

1.1

1.1

100.0

Total

95

100.0

100.0

Qualitativestudies often present individual representations of the participants.For example of interview participants,

John:Has been with the organization where he currently works for over fouryears, and is a manager. John does not know how much longer he willstay with the current organization, but believes that he will servein the organization’s administration at some point in the future.

Julia:Is also a manager in her organization, and has been employed therefor over four years. Julia intends to stay with the organization forat least ten more years, but is not sure of whether she will assume anew role or new responsibilities in the future. Julia’sorganization is anticipating turnover in the future, and has beenengaging in some staff development activities. Julia does not thinkthat there is a formal transition plan developed.

Fora content analysis of articles this would be the APA reference forthe article/text/media and a brief annotated bibliography. Forexample,

Whiteand Jacques (2007) Combined diet and exercise intervention in theworkplace.This article discussed the implementation and efficacy of a 12 weekworkplace wellness program that aimed to reduce the risk ofcardiovascular disease as it relates to obesity….

Eves,Webb and Mutrie (2006) A workplace intervention to promote stairclimbing: Greater effects in the overweight.This article discusses the effects of sedentary behavior on healthand the practice of stair climbing within the workplace to reduceobesity….

Lassen,Thorsen, Sommer, Fagt, Trolle, Biltoft-Jensen, &amp Tetens (2011)Improving the diet of employees at blue-collar worksite: Results fromthe ‘Food at Work’ intervention study.This article focuses on the implementation of a food-based study thatevaluates the impacts of health eating in “blue-collar” worksitesusing a participatory research approach….

Beloware presented first the quantitative version and then the qualitativeversion. Remove the section you are not using and leave in thesection you are using.

DataAnalysis and Coding (quantitative)

Quantitative- Present discussions and explanations and then tables in eachsection below. Some researchers present the results by levels ofinference, and others by research question. After the questions,then a section of multiple regression.

Reliability

Discussthe means you undertake to ensure your data is reliable, youranalysis is valid, and that you may generalize your results from thesample to the population. See Remler and Van Ryzin (2014) or Szafran(2012) and cite them as necessary throughout the section.

Researchquestion 1

Crosstabulations.Discuss the results expressed in the table(s) (including thenumerical data), then present the table(s) before moving on to thenext section. Be certain to give the expected count and theresiduals and report the total percent.

Table4. Crosstabulations:Future as a volunteer.

I have participated in the following ECA or OCA? (Volunteer)

Total

Yes

No

My grades in high school and college matter for my future.

Strongly Agree

Count

16

21

37

Expected Count

13.5

23.5

37.0

Residual

2.5

-2.5

Somewhat Agree

Count

0

2

2

Expected Count

.7

1.3

2.0

Residual

-.7

.7

Agree

Count

0

4

4

Expected Count

1.5

2.5

4.0

Residual

-1.5

1.5

Somewhat Disagree

Count

0

1

1

Expected Count

.4

.6

1.0

Residual

-.4

.4

Total

Count

16

28

44

Expected Count

16.0

28.0

44.0

Pearson’sCorrelation.Discuss the results expressed in the table(s) (including thenumerical data), then present the table(s) before moving on to thenext section. Correlations are reported with the data from therelated cell as (r, p, N), or (.582, .000, 95): where r = Pearson’scorrelation, p = significance, and N=the number of responses.

Table5. Correlations: Socialmedia fundraising * How you would give.

Give

Amt.

FB/Twitter

Web

Direct mail

Give

Pearson Correlation

1

.582**

-.276**

-.179

-.511**

Sig. (two-tailed)

.000

.007

.083

.000

N

95

95

95

95

95

Amt.

Pearson Correlation

.582**

1

-.231*

-.002

-.538**

Sig. (two-tailed)

.000

.024

.983

.000

N

95

95

95

95

95

FB/Twitter

Pearson Correlation

-.276**

-.231*

1

.609**

.214*

Sig. (two-tailed)

.007

.024

.000

.037

N

95

95

95

95

95

Web

Pearson Correlation

-.179

-.002

.609**

1

-.072

Sig. (two-tailed)

.083

.983

.000

.486

N

95

95

95

95

95

Direct mail

Pearson Correlation

-.511**

-.538**

.214*

-.072

1

Sig. (two-tailed)

.000

.000

.037

.486

N

95

95

95

95

95

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed).

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (two-tailed).

t-Tests (one-sample, independent, or paired).Discuss the results expressed in the table(s) (including thenumerical data), then present the table(s) before moving on to thenext section. For t- tests report the (t, df, p), or (.824, 52,.176): where t = the t statistic, df = the degrees of freedom, and p= the significance). The null hypothesis is accepted or rejectedbased p ≥.05.

Table6. Independent samplegroup statistics for young alumni giving.

enjoyed experience

Donated?

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Yes

16

4.75

.577

.144

No

38

4.61

.595

.096

satisfied experience

Yes

16

4.69

.793

.198

No

38

4.47

.647

.105

Table7. Independent samples t- tests for young alumni giving

Levene`s Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

enjoyed experience

Equal variances assumed

1.445

.235

.824

52

.414

.145

.176

-.208

.497

Equal variances not assumed

.834

29.039

.411

.145

.174

-.210

.500

satisfied experience

Equal variances assumed

.403

.528

1.037

52

.305

.214

.206

-.200

.628

Equal variances not assumed

.953

23.815

.350

.214

.224

-.249

.677

Researchquestion 2

Crosstabulations.Discuss the results expressed in the table(s) (including thenumerical data), then present the table(s) before moving on to thenext section. Be certain to give the expected count and the residualsand report the total percent.

Table8. Crostabulations: Myfuture as a volunteer 2

I have participated in the following ECA or OCA? (Volunteer)

Total

Yes

No

My grades in high school and college matter for my future.

Strongly Agree

Count

16

21

37

Expected Count

13.5

23.5

37.0

Residual

2.5

-2.5

Somewhat Agree

Count

0

2

2

Expected Count

.7

1.3

2.0

Residual

-.7

.7

Agree

Count

0

4

4

Expected Count

1.5

2.5

4.0

Residual

-1.5

1.5

Somewhat Disagree

Count

0

1

1

Expected Count

.4

.6

1.0

Residual

-.4

.4

Total

Count

16

28

44

Expected Count

16.0

28.0

44.0

Pearson’sCorrelation.Discuss the results expressed in the table(s) (including thenumerical data), then present the table(s) before moving on to thenext section. Correlations are reported with the data from therelated cell as (r, p, N), or (.582, .000, 95): where r = Pearson’scorrelation, p = significance, and N=the number of responses.

Table9. Correlations: socialmedia fundraising * How would you give 2

Give

Amt.

FB/Twitter

Web

Direct mail

Give

Pearson Correlation

1

.582**

-.276**

-.179

-.511**

Sig. (two-tailed)

.000

.007

.083

.000

N

95

95

95

95

95

Amt.

Pearson Correlation

.582**

1

-.231*

-.002

-.538**

Sig. (two-tailed)

.000

.024

.983

.000

N

95

95

95

95

95

FB/Twitter

Pearson Correlation

-.276**

-.231*

1

.609**

.214*

Sig. (two-tailed)

.007

.024

.000

.037

N

95

95

95

95

95

Web

Pearson Correlation

-.179

-.002

.609**

1

-.072

Sig. (two-tailed)

.083

.983

.000

.486

N

95

95

95

95

95

Direct mail

Pearson Correlation

-.511**

-.538**

.214*

-.072

1

Sig. (two-tailed)

.000

.000

.037

.486

N

95

95

95

95

95

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed).

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (two-tailed).

t-Tests (one-sample, independent, or paired).Discuss the results expressed in the table(s) (including thenumerical data), then present the table(s) before moving on to thenext section. For t- tests report the (t, df, p), or (.824, 52,.176): where t = the t statistic, df = the degrees of freedom, and p= the significance). The null hypothesis is accepted or rejectedbased p ≥.05.

Table10. Independent samplegroup statistics for young alumni giving.

enjoyed experience

Donated?

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Yes

16

4.75

.577

.144

No

38

4.61

.595

.096

satisfied experience

Yes

16

4.69

.793

.198

No

38

4.47

.647

.105

Table11. Independent samplest- tests for young alumni giving

Levene`s Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

enjoyed experience

Equal variances assumed

1.445

.235

.824

52

.414

.145

.176

-.208

.497

Equal variances not assumed

.834

29.039

.411

.145

.174

-.210

.500

satisfied experience

Equal variances assumed

.403

.528

1.037

52

.305

.214

.206

-.200

.628

Multipleregressions

Althoughyou might have responded to the research questions, you might not beable to use that knowledge to predict the general population thesample represents. It is important to attempt to find combinationsof variables that enable you to make use of the data for prediction. Now that you are well acquainted with your data and the results ofstatistical tests, hypothesize patterns of responses to questionsthat might predict your population’s (those your sample represent)response to the research questions or other emergent patterns relatedto your working hypothesis. This is an analysis requiring someexperimentation and testing to find what to include and what to leaveout of the model.

Table12. Model Summary BA

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R square

Std. Error of Estimate

1

.447

.200

-.043

7.550

Table13. ANOVA BA

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Regression

327.724

7

46.818

.821

.580b

Residual

1310.986

23

56.999

&nbsp

&nbsp

Total

1638.710

30

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Table14. Coefficients BA

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

(Constant)

29.419

10.716

2.745

.012

Education CVR

-.159

.208

-.183

-.767

.451

Education BA

.164

.223

.188

.738

.468

Public Safety CVR

.566

.411

.522

1.375

.182

Public Safety BA

-.582

.417

-.472

-1.397

.176

Economy BA

.065

.344

.059

.189

.852

Congressional Voting

.197

.170

.268

1.158

.259

Economy CVR

-.062

.317

-.057

-.196

.846

DataAnalysis and Coding(qualitative)

Qualitative– discuss how you will analyze the data and the intent of eachlevel. See Merriam (2009, 2016) and or Saldana (2009, 2015) and citethem throughout the chapter as necessary.

Trustworthiness

Discussthe strategy for ensuring the trustworthiness (credibility,transferability, dependability, and confirmability) of the data. SeeMerriam (2009, 2016), or Shenton (2004).

PrimaryLevel of Coding

Namethe section after the coding method used (descriptive, emotions,taxonomy, and so on). Discuss in some detail its purpose and how youconduct this coding. This level is used to identify elements withinthe data and to sort them into explanatory categories. Then showexamples from your interviews or text, and present figures or tablesto assist your audience in understanding your logic in developingyour findings.

Thecategories resulting from this analysis included proactive personaldevelopment seeking flexibility within the organization emphasizingindividualized succession and workforce planning withinorganizations planning that is concentrated at the executive leveland staff frustration with the succession planning process. Twooutliers also existed, with one individual indicating that theorganization engaged a consultant to lead a strategic planningprocess that also included succession planning throughout the entireorganization. The other individual responded that inclusion of staffin succession planning was not important, and that staff engagementdid not really matter in the process.

Table15. Examples of thetaxonomy development.

Key Words and Phrases

Resulting Category

Graduate school, higher education, personal development, leadership development, seek out information, building strengths, learn continually.

Proactive Personal Development

Mentoring, discussion of role, personal communication, talked about promotion, networking, boss challenged me to expand role, my potential discussed at meetings.

Individualized Succession and Workforce Planning

Lecondarylevel of coding

Namethe section after the coding method used (pattern, focused, axial,and so on). Discuss in some detail its purpose and how you conductthis coding. This level is used to understand the relationshipsbetween the categories of elements found in the previous coding, orto understand the elements in the data from a different perspective. Then show examples from your interviews or text, and present figuresor tables to assist your audience in understanding your logic indeveloping your findings.

Duringthe review of the Descriptive Coding, major themes started to developwhich led to the use of a secondary coding method. The secondarycoding used in this qualitative study was Focused Coding. FocusedCoding is defined as developing categories or themes from the databeing analyzed. Focused Coding is a method of coding that can beused for all qualitative studies (Saldaña, 2009, p. 155).Continuously reading over each participant’s interview allowed theresearcher to identify themes in each sentence of the interview. Once themes were identified, the researcher looked for similaritiesbetween the themes in each interview. Upon coding and analysis ofthe five participant’s interviews three major themes formed fromthe participant’s interviews which were the following: Experienceswith Mentors, Identifying Oneself with Mentors and BuildingRelationships.

Table16. Categorydevelopment.

Effective opportunities

Relationships

Convenience

Professional connections

resourceful

make connections

resourceful

It is who you know

research

I need to meet new contacts

time saver

Make connections

more options

helps me communicate with friends and acquaintances

fast and I don’t have to leave my house

I don’t know a lot of people in my field

I can see many options at one time

I am updated on my friends’ lives and careers when I use SNS

I don’t have a lot of time to waste so I use it

My professional network is limited so would I use LinkedIn to start

Or,another example,

Table17. Meta codes: Thethree aspects of Latina women`s culture.

Traditional Aspects

Rooted in Latino culture

Evolving Aspects

Influenced by external elements

Radical Aspects

Defined by Latina women

Language

Faith

Family

Education

Community

Environment

Identity

Gender roles

Relationships

Therepresentations of your qualitative data analysis might also take theform of figures or charts. For example,

Figure3. Examples of theaxial coding comparing the relationships of categories.

Triangulation

Discusshow you compare the understandings of the data developed in the twocoding levels to each other, and then to your sources of data(interview transcripts, articles, documents, etcetera). In thecomparison to the data source note (1) if you are using language theparticipants would recognize or use – is it invivo? (2) How welldoes your current understanding fit with your data source? (3) Doesanything new emerge as a result of your current understanding? Makenote of anything that you learn in this comparison, and then discussit, and especially any changes you made in your current understandingdue to the comparison. Finish with a brief paragraph stating yourfinal understanding of the data based on the analysis. A portion ofthe final statement of the researcher’s understanding is below.

Thecomparison to primary data also elicited more contextual examplesthat were overlooked during initial review and coding, but thatsupported the categorization of themes and the radiological analysis. For example, in his response, John indicated that formal inclusionin a succession plan which recognized individual abilities and whichprovided opportunities for challenging work would, “fuel myambition and sense of belonging and responsibility to theorganization.” John also indicated that, although his organizationhas a plan in place, details are vague and does not provide staffwith much information. This statement supports the potentialdisconnect occurring when employees are proactively seeking ways toengage in professional development but are not provided withinformation regarding the overall plan or their role in the future ofthe organization.

Discussion

Discussthe purpose of this chapter and how it will proceed.

ResearchQuestions

ResearchQuestions 1. (quantitative version)

Listthe research question.

Nullhypothesis one. List the null hypothesis.

Alternatehypothesis one. List the alternate hypothesis.

Discusswhat you know from the data and determine to accept or reject thenull hypothesis. Offer examples from your results, and link to theargument or theory. Use citations!

Researchquestion two. (qualitative version)

Statethe research question.

Discusswhat you know from the data and determine and respond to the researchquestion. Offer examples from your findings, and link to theargument or theory. Use citations!

Andso on… until you address each question posed in the study.

Conclusions

Nowthat you have mastered understanding your data and you have respondedto your research questions, you have a body of knowledge concerningyour research problem. Take this opportunity to discuss what you nowknow and how what you know can be applied to resolve or explain yourproblem. This is where you would present models, list, policies,practices, and etcetera.

Recommendations

Makerecommendations for implementing your resolution. What mightpolicymakers, administrators, or others need to accomplish to makeyour recommendations work.

Implications.

Thendiscuss the implications implementing your recommendations might havefor your target population, the scholar-practitioner community, andeven the wider social affects.

Summary

Summarizethe entire project. This should be a more detailed narrative of theabstract or summary from the beginning.

References

Thereferences section is written in the hanging indent style and with asentence space of 1.5 for improved readability. There must be areference for every work cited, and nothing should be referenced thatis not cited, in the entire document.

Seethe APA 6thPublication Manual, chapter 7 for the appropriate reference stylesfor each type of source used.

Yourreference section should include every work cited in the paper. Thereference section of an APA research paper is unlike a bibliographyfrom other publishing styles. The reference section of this papermay only include works that you have cited in the document. You maynot include items that influenced you, or are recommended reading,only include what you have actually cited.

Forexample,

AmericanPsychological Association, (2009).Publication manual ofthe American psychological association 6thEdition, Washington, D.C.: Author

Booth, W. C, Colomb, G.G., &ampWilliams, J. L. (2008). Thecraft of research,3rded., Chicago, IL, Chicago University Press.

*Use Chapters 3 to 5 toclarify your topic into questions.

Creswell, J. S. (2014).Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches.4thed., Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing

Krippendorff, K. (2006).Reliability in content analysis: Some common misconceptions andrecommendations. HumanCommunication Research30(3) 411–433

Krippendorff, K. (2013).Content analysis: Anintroduction to its methodology. ThousandOaks, CA: Sage Publications

Lester, J. D. &amp Lester, J.D. Jr. (2011). Writing research papers: A complete guide, UpperSaddle River, NJ: Pearson Longman.

*Use chapter 7, sections F &ampG to develop an annotated bibliography and turn it into a literaturereview.

Merriam, S. B. (2009).Qualitativeresearch: a guide to design and implementation.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

*Use all chapters as they arehelpful.

Merriam, S. B. &amp Tisdell,E. J. (2016). Qualitativeresearch: a guide to design and implementation.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

*Use all chapters as they arehelpful.

Paul, R. &amp Elder, L.(2008). Theminiature guide to critical thinking: Concepts and tools. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Remler, D. K. &amp Van Ryzin,G. G. (2010). Researchmethods in practice: Strategies for description and causation.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Saldana, J. (2009). Thecoding manual for qualitative researchers.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing. *The appropriate sections foryour primary and secondary coding of the data.

Schensul,S. L., Schensul, J.J., &amp LeCompte, M. D. (1999) Essentialethnographic methods: Observations, interviews, and questionnaires.In Ethnographer’s Toolkit Schensul, J. J., &amp LeCompte, M. D.(Eds.) Lanham, MD: Altamira Press

*Theappropriate chapter for surveys or interviews.

Schensul,J. J., &amp LeCompte, M. D. (2013) Essential ethnographic methods:Observations, interviews, and questionnaires. In Ethnographer’sToolkit Schensul, J. J., &amp LeCompte, M. D. (Eds.) Lanham, MD:Altamira Press

*Theappropriate chapter for surveys or interviews.

Shenton,A. K. (2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitativeresearch projects. Educationfor Information 2263–75

Szafran,R. (2012). Answeringquestions with statistics.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing

Yin,R. K., (2013). Casestudy research: Design and methods(5thed.), Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage Publishing. *The standard for case study research.

Appendices

AppendixA: Recruitment Materials

Placeexamples of the script you will use to standardize your recruitmentof participants your flyers, notices, emails, contents of Facebookpage contents, and etcetera.

AppendixB: Informed Consent

Title of your Research Study

I would like to invite you toparticipate in a research study examining. My name is and the data collected in thisinterview will help fulfill the requirements for a Master of Sciencein Administration in _ atTrinity Washington University. I am under the supervision of myfaculty advisor Dr. .

Participation Requires ofYou: To (describewhat they will do, i.e. to be interviewed, to complete the survey,etcetera) . Thereis no planned use of deception involved in this study.

Your Privacy:Your participation in this study and your responses will be keptconfidential. Any reference to you will be by pseudonym, includingany direct quotes from your responses. This document and any notesor recordings that might personally identify you as a participant inthis study will be kept in a locked place that only the researcherwill have access to. Only the researcher and the research supervisormight know who has participated in this study. Three years after thecompletion of this research study all personally identifyinginformation will be destroyed.

Risks to you:There are five acknowledged risks generally associated withparticipation in research studies such as this one: Physical,psychological, social, economic, and legal. The researcher foreseesminimal risk for those who choose to participate in this study. There are no foreseen physical risks associated with this studyother risks might include the following:

You might experience anxiety,discomfort, or negative emotions as a result of responding to thequestions asked of them in this research study. If you experience anegative reaction, you may choose to skip the question, to withdrawfrom the study, or you may contact my faculty advisor or the BGSInstitutional Review Board, especially if your discomfort continuesafter the study. See the contact information on the page below.

You might experience social,economic, or legal implications if you share your responses or yourparticipation in this study with others. If you choose toparticipate in this study, you are encouraged to keep yourparticipation in this study and your responses confidential. Theresearcher will maintain your confidentiality throughout the study,and will destroy the records of your participation three years afterthe study is complete.

Benefits to You:There are not foreseen direct benefits to you regarding participationin this study beyond the general knowledge that you are assisting infurthering the knowledge related to this research topic, andassisting the researcher in completing the MSA degree requirements. There is no compensation associated with participation in this study.

Informed Consent Form, page 2

Title of your Research Study

This document acknowledges I understand of my rights as a participantin this study, which the researcher has explained to me prior tosigning this document.

I acknowledge that the researcher has explained my rights, therequirements of this study, and the potential risks involved inparticipating in this study. I understand there is no compensationfor, or direct benefit of participating in this study. By signingbelow and providing my contact information I am indicating that Iconsent to participate in this study, that I am at least 18 years ofage, and I am eligible to participate in this study.

I may withdraw from this study at any time by notifying theresearcher by email. If I have any concerns regarding myparticipation in this research study I may contact the researchsupervisor, Dr. __, or the BGS InstitutionalReview Board (IRB), which oversees the ethical practice of studentresearch at the Trinity Washington University School of Business andGraduate Studies. I may ask for a copy of this document for my ownrecords.

Signed _ ___

Printed _

Phone Number, Email Address, or Postal Address:

_

Thank you for your participation,

MSA in ___

Trinity Washington University

Email Address: @students.trinitydc.edu

Dr.

MSA Candidate

Trinity Washington University

@mail address: @trinitydc.edu

(202) 884-9640

BGS Institutional Review Board Committee

(202) 884-9640, or

Email [email protected]with BGS IRB in the subject line.

AppendixC: Data Collection Instrument

Insertan MS Word friendly version of your survey questionnaire or interviewhere in this appendix. This should have all the questions includedand any narration or other interaction with the participant. The textshould be exact as it was reviewed, and as it was approved by the IRBcommittee.

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