Vaccines Vaccines

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VACCINES 10

Vaccines

Vaccines

Theuses of vaccines are critical to the prevention of various infectionsthat lack immediate cure across the globe (Instituteof Medicine (U.S.), &amp Stratton, 2012).As such, the assessment of the viability of these products requiresfrequent studies and consultation among scientists. Specifically, theprocesses include safety of the children and persons that volunteerfor the tests hence providing information regarding the effectivityof the new prevention drugs. Each country has also placed othermeasures that look into the safe-keeping of the teenagers given thatthese teenagers form the future generation.

Thetesting of the vaccines should be done continuously until thegovernment agency provide essential regulation of the new product.For instance, in the U.S. the wide use of vaccination are allowedafter various scrutinies by the Centre for Disease Control. Further,the actions are supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics thatregulates the use of drugs among the children (Plotkin,Orenstein, &amp Offit, 2013).

Thekey benefit associated with vaccines is their ability to preventdisease attacks hence saving the lives of children (Osterholm,Kelley, Sommer, &amp Belongia, 2012).The advancement in medication has enabled doctors in the healthsector to eliminate cases of diseases that killed a significantnumber of people in the past century. Specifically, the currentadministrations have safeguarded the teenagers against polio andmeasles, diseases that cause great suffering to the affectedindividuals.

Advantagesof Vaccines

Thesafety issue provided through polio programs makes the procedure themost efficient and effective system of medication (Osterholmet al., 2012).Despite the discomfort caused by pain, uneasiness, and trauma,vaccination has no serious cases or severe symptoms to the victims.The precaution is used to prevent the occurrence of illness,therefore, forms the resulted-oriented concepts in the medicalhistory. Additionally, vaccination serves to protect the childrenagainst other unknown diseases after protecting a child sufferingfrom a particular illness. As such, a family reduces expenses onmedical programs besides safeguarding the future generation throughthis care program.

Disadvantagesof Vaccines

Otherforms of vaccines are provided through injections of the child aftervarious months after birth. Consequently, frequent conduction of thisprocedure interferes with the normal body immunity system henceleading to allergic reactions and other forms of medicalcomplications. These aspects are referred to as booster injectionsand are associated with discomfort and inconvenience (Quadri-Sheriff,Hendrix, Downs, Sturm, Zimet, &amp Finnell, 2012).

Despitethe effort made to produce the most positive and result-orienteddrugs, vaccination sometimes fails to produce the required outcome.Therefore, the procedure does not provide 100% surety to the parentsand victims of a better result (Quadri-Sheriffet al., 2012).Further, the program is associated with other side effects that causeextensive to the children. These symptoms are maybe more painful tothe victims that the disease itself hence resulting to morepsychological torture the affected family.

Otherhidden costs are also experienced by the parents during theimmunization processes despite the governments’ provision of freeservices. The administration hikes the prices of commodities as anapproach to conducting research and distributing these drugs acrossthe country. Particularly, other costs are accrued by the hospitalsresulting to the parents paying for unknown services. Further,complaints from the developing nations state that the governmentsthrough the World Health Organization (WHO) had initiated thevaccination procedures with ill intentions. Notably, the antagonistsassert that tetanus vaccines have some strains of birth control homesthus destroying the capacity of the future generations. The parentshave also argued that the number of immunization processes is usuallycloser to one another. Due to the short span of weeks and months,parents claim that vaccination through the use of vaccines results inautism, a disease that impairs a teenager at an early stage in life(Quadri-Sheriffet al., 2012).

Typesof Vaccines

Theexistence of various microbes that cause diseases has forced thescientists to develop different types of vaccines that fit aparticular causal agent. The manufacturing of these elementsconsiders the reaction to the body’s immunity system and thecritical structure of microbes that cause diseases such as measlesand whooping cough. Therefore, an individual’s response to thedrugs is essential to the elimination of such complications in thesociety. Therefore, the types of vaccines that are widely used acrossthe globe include:

LiveVaccines

Thesedrugs are derived from microbes that have gone weakening throughvarious laboratory procedures, thus, the inability to cause diseases.Notably, live attenuated vaccines help the immune system to generateits anti-bodies making the body fight against future occurrences ofthe similar illness. However, these types of protective drugs aredifficult to manufacture and distribute among the community members.

InactiveVaccines

Thesedrugs are formed through the destruction of microbes that cause thepreventable diseases. Remarkably, these vaccines are safer than thelive vaccines given that the dead agents cannot transform thusprotecting the patients.

SubunitVaccines

TheSubunit Serums are manufactured through the use of antigen that iseffective in the reactivation of body’s immune system. The antigensrange between 1 and 20, a factor that allows the body to producestrong defense against disease attacks.

Critiqueof Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Alarger population argues that qualitative research is not a realscience. Consequently, to determine this notion, the paper critiquestwo papers of qualitative and mixed approaches that deal with aspectsof vaccines.

Critiqueof Mixed Method

Abdulhussein,Z., Deamond, S., Elliott, R., &amp Ho, M. (2011). Barriers toReceiving and Reporting Childhood Immunizations: Parents’Perspectives.

ResearchPurpose

Thestudy conducted by Abdulhussein et al., (2014) determines thebarriers that make parents not to immunize or report vaccinationissues. However, the paper failed to provide a pre-understandingregarding the authors’ professional information. Further, the studywas conducted in a survey format, thus lacking critical data on thehypothesis. The researchers requested information by using pre-formedquestions such as, “What prevented you from having the childimmunized?”

Importantly,the author provided a detailed literature review on the researchpurpose by giving highlights on what large organization is conductingto increase the rate of child immunizations. Conversely, theresearchers used a nursing theoretical framework to find data amongthe community members. This concept encompassed the use of anapproved pre-test nursing survey and used parents from elementaryschool to provide answers to the survey questions. The researcheradequately described the study group and ensuring the humanprotection by applying ethical aspects such as confidentiality.

Thestudy design encompassed the use of survey tools that resulted in theproduction of clear results given the completion and adequateanswering of a question by the respondents. Notably, SPSS softwarewas used to analyze the data hence providing detailed results. Thequantitative fin findings indicated that 57% of the parents hadimmunized the children but failed to notify the authority. The needto provide online reporting at 79% was also critical for theimmunization cases.

Further,qualitative results showed that access to immunization facilities,trust, inter-professionalism, and information deficiency were the keyreasons as to why immunization rates were lower in the community. Theauthors have fully discussed the findings and explaining the reasonbehind each aspect this notion is coupled with the need for furthersurveys among focus groups. This idea also acted as a recommendationto the readers and, therefore, the study is essential to my practiceby helping understand the relation of these barriers to the currentcommunities.

Critiqueof Qualitative Method

Harmsen,I. A., Mollema, L., Ruiter, R. A., Paulussen, T. G., de Melker, H.E., &amp Kok, G. (2013). Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: aqualitative study using online focus groups. BMC Public Health,13(1), 1183.

Thepurpose of the investigation was to identify reasons for why someparents were against vaccination and the paper achieved thisobjective by investigating online focus groups. Conversely, thearticle provides little information regarding the professionalism ofthe researcher. Nonetheless, it states that vaccination is a keyproblem among parents that live in high-end areas irrespective of thevisible success.

Thestudy has also provided a comprehensive literature review on thefailure by successful families to refuse to take the children thehealth sectors. The authors investigate this assumption by usingNetherlands as a case study. Despite this controversial information,the writer states that the country has a vaccination rate of 95%. Theresearch randomly selected 250 participants from Praeventis and hadchildren below four-years-old hence. The correspondents were adequatefor the study and protected the information of the involved partiesthus achieving the human protection aspects.

Conversely,the author failed to mention the redundancy of the research but useda semi-structured protocol of survey questions as a methodologicaldesign to answer the study question. Equally, the researchers usedonline survey system to reach all selected women across Netherlandsand then employed a thematic analysis to explore the data. The datagenerated were credible given that the information used was obtainedfrom the National Immunization Program’s (NIP) database. The authorsupports this information by claiming that the use of this focusgroup was effective through the provision of meaningful data.

Theresearchers found that vaccination is determined by the lifestyle,risks, perceptions, and the symptoms associated with the system.These aspects showed whether a parent was willing to provide suchmedications to the children. Moreover, the author argues that theinability to get more response from the contacts was the fundamentallimitation of the study. The conclusion provided by the authors isclear when they stated that the information submitted by the healthinstitution was insufficient to the selected cluster of parents, assuch, trust should be improved to allow the scholar to providedetailed data regarding the avoidance of vaccination.

Theresearcher also recommends further research on how more informationcan be obtained from online users regarding the suitability and sideeffects of vaccination. Further, the need for trust in NIP isrequired to enable more people to register with the institution thusgetting more data for analysis.

Comparisonof Research

Advantagesof the Two Pieces of Research

Theinformation from mixed and qualitative research is critical to themaking of informed decision among the informed individuals.Specifically, a qualitative study has its data in numeric format thusthe ability to conduct statistically analyzed through software suchas SPSS that are easier to interpret. For instance, the researchconducted by Abdulhussein et al., (2014) has utilized mixed method todetermine the reasons why a large number of parents fail to immunizetheir children. The qualitative derivative of this study, however,showed that 69% of the women immunize the teenager but fail to informthe authority. Equally, 79% of the participants asserted that thelack of information contributed to the reduced number of vaccinationcases. Further, the qualitative result indicated that trust andaccess to services were another key factor that must be consideredduring immunization. Consequently, these results can be used to makeinformed decisions regarding these health issues.

Disadvantagesof the Two Pieces of Research

Thedisadvantage of mixed research is observed it its complexity and theneed for intensive analysis and non-clarity in some of itsobjectives. However, the qualitative result sometimes providesnon-detailed information such as the data regarding the researchersas showed by the study conducted by Harmsen et al., (2013). Moreover,some of the data are non-redundant on the platforms hence may resultin the provision of non-detailed conclusion.

Claimon the Status of Qualitative Research

Remarkably,I believe that qualitative study is a real science, given that itinvolves the analysis of real methods through the use of theinternationally accepted research methods. Moreover, factor such ashypothesis and literature review are discussed thus offering readerswith the ideas.

Insightsthe Studies Provide to the Researchers

Theinsights that the two pieces of research provide is the need to usereputable data from recognized institution to promote theauthenticity of the information. This idea is supported by the twostudies in which it is observed that the applied statistics werederived from a governmental database that encompassed the NationalImmunization Program (NIP) and the Elementary School.

Recommendation

Giventhe analysis on mixed and qualitative pieces of research, it isrecommended that studies provide a brief overview of the authors.Further, scholars must use reputable firms to obtain data, a factorthe assists in the acquisition of authentic results. Therefore, thecombination of proper data collection, statistical evaluation, andappropriate reporting of results lead to the creation of awarenesswithin the nursing community.

Conclusion

Essentially,delivery of health services such as vaccination processes requiresmembers to conduct studies regarding specific diseases. The knowledgeof these illnesses is vital to the deliverance of quality diagnosisand treatment to the affected demographics. Importantly, the aboveinformation provides valuable data and approaches to meet therequirements in the nursing industry and individual life.

References

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Abdulhussein,Z., Deamond, S., Elliott, R., &amp Ho, M. (2011). Barriers toReceiving and Reporting Childhood Immunizations: Parents’Perspectives.

Harmsen,I. A., Mollema, L., Ruiter, R. A., Paulussen, T. G., de Melker, H.E., &amp Kok, G. (2013). Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: aqualitative study using online focus groups. BMC Public Health,13(1), 1183.

InstituteOf Medicine (U.S.), &amp Stratton, K. R. (2012).&nbspAdverseeffects of vaccines: evidence and causality

Osterholm,M. T., Kelley, N. S., Sommer, A., &amp Belongia, E. A. (2012).Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines: a systematic reviewand meta-analysis.&nbspTheLancet infectious diseases,&nbsp12(1),36-44.

Plotkin,S. A., Orenstein, W. A., &amp Offit, P. A. (2013).&nbspVaccines.Elsevier Saunders

Quadri-Sheriff,M., Hendrix, K. S., Downs, S. M., Sturm, L. A., Zimet, G. D., &ampFinnell, S. M. E. (2012). The role of herd immunity in parents’decision to vaccinate children: a systematicreview.&nbspPediatrics,&nbsp130(3),522-530.

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