What does John Bodnar mean that immigration was an experience of

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  1. What does John Bodnar mean that immigration was an experience of transplantation? What role did capitalism play in the transplanting experience? What was transplanted? How did this help immigrants adjust to the dictates of capitalism?

Bodnarclaims that the process of immigration was like transplantationbecause the immigrant had to fit into the American capitalist societycomprising of the middle and the working class who had more economicpowers. The capitalists played a key role in the education,government, and social reforms. They transplanted the distribution ofeconomic responsibilities that helped them assimilate into the newculture (Bordnar).

  1. Define again “the traditional and most rigid approach to diversity” (Anglo-conformity).

Meantthat the American society could only survive if the minorities andimmigrants conformed to the values of the majority (Olson and Beal,2).

  1. Choosing either the Irish

  1. What were the specific reasons why the Irish migrated to the U.S.?

Thepotato blight fungus destroyed the potato crop between 1845 and 1850.As a result, many Irish fed to the United States to escape poverty,famine, and diseases. The food shortage continued into the 20thcentury where more Irish people migrated to join with their relativeswho had settled in the United States.

  1. Where did they settle in the U.S. and why?

Theearly Irish immigrants settled in the South near the AppalachianMountain. The Irish people were farmers and the South had fertilelands suitable for farming.

  1. What institutions did they establish in the U.S.? In what institutions did these institutions help to maintain their ethnic culture and contribute to the ethnic identity? How did there institutions help them adapt to America.

  2. The Irish developed churches and schools where they taught the Catholic religion. The schools enabled them to learn English and adapt to the American culture. They published newspapers manifesting their culture and formed the Irish Emigrant Society to assist new immigrants (Olson and Beal, 181).

  3. What kind of work and occupation did the group engage?

Mostimmigrants were poor, lacked skills, and could not communicate inEnglish therefore, they engaged in in menial jobs like cleaningstables, loading ships in docks, and cleaning streets. The womenworked in the textile factories or as domestic servants.

  1. What types of families did the group form in the U.S.? What roles did men and women play in these families?

TheIrish immigrants lived in extend families. They were low classcitizens and both the men and women worked to earn a living.

  1. How was the group treated by the larger U.S. and society, and why? What specific documents by name show this?

TheIrish immigrants were discriminated because they were Catholics. As aresult, they lived in small communities and sought refuge inreligion.

  1. How successful were they at assimilating? Why?

TheIrish were successful assimilating into the American culture becausethey were white and did not face race prejudice like the Blacks andthe Asians.

  1. Why hadn’t groups fully assimilated by 1890? What forces encouraged some to assimilate and other not?

  2. The Irish assimilated into the American society but remained loyal to their nations. However, due to the initial resistance they faced when they first came in to America, some Irish people found it difficult to assimilate into the new culture.

  1. How did the Irish build communities around their culture, languages, organization, families, and religion? Which concept, transplantation, or Anglo conformity best reflect their experiences?

TheIrish people were transplanted into the American culture. The Irishimmigrants were poor and unskilled and therefore, they could not jointhe American working or elite classes. As a result, they had to startas manual workers living in poor conditions without water andsanitation. They did not have the ability to influence public affairsand focused on their daily chores to make a living. However, theygradually formed schools, learned English, build institutions, andspread the Catholic religion, which helped them to assimilate intothe American society.

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